204 lots

LOT 21

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur ... Watch No. 1436, sold on 10 Vendémiaire an 13 ( 2 October 1804), for the sum of 840 Francs. Gold "souscription" watch.

Case: 18 ct., three body, collier form, by Joly, No.915, engine-turned à g r a i n s d'orge.
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Breguet numerals and secret signature below "12" (small hair lines). Blued-steel souscription hand with tapered point.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', souscription caliber with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder, three-arm plain brass balance with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator.
In very good condition. Diam. 62 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 45000

Sold: CHF 34,500

History: When originally sold in 1804, the register was simply marked Vendue à Mr............... It was however returned for overhaul by a Mme de Neuchaise on 9 June 1837, bought back from her on 16 inst. of the same month and then completely restored for the new buyer, a certain Mr. P. Niaudet.
Note: In the Notice, published in approximately 1796, to launch the souscription, Breguet pointed out that although watches destined for marine or astronomical use, had reached a high degree of perfection, those destined for civil use were of mediocre quality. Furthermore, as the best quality watches were too highly priced for the average buyer, he concluded that the market would readily accept a good quality product sold for a reasonable sum. Such a watch should be distinguished by its simplicity, be properly protected against shock damage, and designed in such a way that the wheel-train, escapement and the regulator (balance, balance spring and temperature compensation) were all accessible and capable of being overhauled or repaired by any competent watchmaker. The result was a watch of an entirely novel conception, both simple and functional, and certainly the first true Usually in silver, with the gold rims being the only decoration, the souscription watches were of a large diameter allowing the enamel dial to be divided in such a way that both hours and minutes could be read from a single hand. The movements had a single plate, the spring barrel mounted in the centre and the wheels elegantly positioned and retained by bridges. The single hand was driven directly off the barrel arbor, eliminating the motion work and the intendant friction, and the ruby cylinder escapement was fitted with a parachute (shock protector) and a compensation curb to assist in correcting temperature errors; features that were the norm for all Breguet's first class watches. To further reduce the selling price, Breguet decided to produce these watches in small series ( between 12 and 20 examples at a time), with the buyers paying an account of 25 % in advance and the balance on completion. Hence the term: de souscription (by subscription). The success of these watches enabled Breguet to both reestablish his business, which had understandably been badly affected by the Revolution and his exile in Switzerland, and to finance much of his research into other areas of horology. According to the firm's records, the first souscription was delivered in 1796 with the No. 96. They are entered in the registers as: Montre de souscription, or alternatively: Montre simple à une seule aiguille. Prices ranged from 600 francs in silver, 800 francs in gold to a somewhat higher figure if an à tact hand was fitted; a practical addition as the movement was designed for a single hand in the first place.

LOT 22

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Galakoff "Montre à tact" No.1711, first sold on 18 Fructidor an 13 (5 September 1805), for the sum of 3360 Francs. Resold to Monsieur de Castaneda on 31 July 1806, for the sum of 3500 Francs. Small gold watch with concealed "à tact" and portrait compartment, wound through the band with concentric seconds, constructed on the principals of the "garde-temps".

Case: 18 ct., four body, collier form, with double back for the concealed portrait, by Tavernier, No. 2346, the reeded band with winding aperture, small push piece to open the portrait compartment, the back engine-turned grains d' org*e, and engraved with a sunburst and monogram "E" in the centre, between two laurel branches. Opening the back reveals the engineturned gold ô taet dial, with touch pins and raised bars; large polished gold a tact hand. Additional push piece to open the double back. Dial: Engine-turned gold, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with engraved Roman numerals on a plain reserve, eccentric seconds and small regulator sector, double secret signature on either side of " X11". Blued-steel Breguet hands. Movement: Gilt brass, 17"', bar caliber, signed: "Breguet, No. 1711", on a semi circular plaque carrying the tact wheel, double going barrels, simultaneously wound by a male key through a right angle gear. Echappentettt naturel with unsprung locking, two escape wheels with five and four teeth respectively. Bimetallic three-arum compensation balance with parachute oil both pivots. Blued-steel balance spiral spring with terminal curves.
In very good condition. Diam. 45 mm.

CHF 80,000 - 100000

Sold: CHF 109,250

History: The records indicate that this watch was first sold to Monsieur Galakoff on 5 September 1805, bought back on 19 May 1806 and transferred to number 2099. It was resold to Monsieur de Castaneda on 31 July 1806, for the sum of 3500 Francs. It is recorded that, after repurchasing the watch in May 1806, Breguet gave it to Tavernier on 14 June 1806, to have the back engine-turned with a radial pattern and the enamel monogram engraved.
Monsieur Castaneda was Secretary to the King of Spain, and would therefore have been responsible for carrying out the King's instructions. He was frequently listed in Breguet's books as a purchaser, often followed by the name of the Spanish noble family for whom he was acting. A perpétuelle watch No. 26 bought by the King of Spain , as a gift for his principal Minister Manuel Godoy, Prince de la Paix, and watch No. 1160 (Lot no. 30) were in fact both purchased through Castaneda.
Note: This is certainly the smallest model of a double-barrel garde-temps watch made by Breguet, and utilizes his smallest version of the échappement naturel. As a general rule, Breguet preferred to use two going-barrels in his precision watches rather than the fusee, as employed by all his contemporaries. He felt, and rightly, that such an arrangement would better serve to equalise the force applied to the centre pinion and avoid excessive friction in the pivots. Indeed, virtually all Marine Chronometers sold by Breguet at the time, were also fitted with double -barrels. The echappement nature/ , also used in this watch, was another of Breguet's major inventions. It was the first attempt to make a precision escapement, with direct impulse in both directions (unlike the detent) that would function without the need for oil. Even today, oil remains a problem in watch making due to its tendency to thicken with age and to alter in viscosity at different temperatures. Breguet only used the echappement nature/ for his best timekeepers, particularly these fitted with a tourbillon, as it was extremely difficult to make. For further information on this escapement please refer to the glossary.

LOT 23

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Dragley Watch No. 1865, sold by Monsieur Moreau, on the 12 June 1809, for the sum of 2400 Francs. Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating.

Case: 18 ct., four body, collier form, by Tavernier, No. 2696, the back engine-turned à grains d'orge with reeded band. The gold cuvette signed: " Breguet No. 1865".
Dial: Engine-turned gold, signed: "Breguet et Fils" , with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, subsidiary seconds at "IIII". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', bar caliber, with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating with a single hammer on the case with pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 56 mm.

CHF 35,000 - 40000

History: The records indicate that this watch, manufactured in 1807, was first sold to a Msr. Aufresne for the sum of 2200 Francs, being collected on his behalf by Msr. Bethancourt. It was taken back for the same price and sent to Moreau, the Russian agent, who subsequently sold it to Msr. Dragly for 2400 Francs on 12 June 1809. The repair records indicate that it was returned on the 24 September 1829 by Monsieur Kisseloff on the instructions of Monsieur le Comte de Gervaise, Secretary to the Ambassador at the Hotel de Castille, and again by the Count himself on 23 August 1838.
Note: This watch is a good example of the Montre répétition de Première Classe , with a gold dial, a title that Breguet used to describe his best quality repeating watches with ruby cylinder escapement.

LOT 24

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Lucien Bonaparte Watch No. 689, first sold on 19 Brumaire an 9, (10 November 1800) for the sum of 1000 Francs. Silver and gold cased "à tact" watch.

Case: Two body, collier form, by Amy Gros, No. 3996, silver, with gold rims, bezel and ring, the reeded band with gold touch-pieces, cover engine-turned with a sunburst, the revolving back with a complex wavy line pattern, with applied engraved gold n tact arrow. Gilt-brass canister type cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 1861".
Dial: Eccentric, matt silvered, mounted on the barrel bridge, signed: "Breguet", with engraved Roman numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt Brass, 24"', souscription caliber, with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator.
In good condition. Diam. 61 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 60000

Sold: CHF 63,250

History: This watch passed through Breguet's hands no less than four times. Chronologically the history is a follows: Sold on 19 Brumaire an 9 (10 November 1800) under No. 689, for 1000 Francs. Repurchased on 21 Messidor an 13 (10 July 1805) from a secrétaire de Lueien Bonaparte, for 500 Francs and transferred to No. 1861. Sold to Monsieur Tessier de Grandpré on 6 January 1807, for 1000 Francs. Repurchased from Monsieur Tessier de Grandpré on 22 November 1822, for 520 Francs and transferred to No. 4125. Sold to Monsieur Combe Scyes on 6 September 1825 for 1000 Francs. Repurchased from Monsieur Combe Scyes on 11 April 1827, for 800 Francs. Sold to Mademoiselle Walekier on 28 November 1829, for 300 Francs. Note: This montre a tact is based on the largest size of souscription movement made by Breguet. The decoration of the case is unusual, with a radial pattern on the dial side and a particularly delicate wave pattern on the back with the gold n tact arrow. LUCIEN BONAPARTE Prince of Canino (1775-1840)
Lucien Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio, the third son of Charles and Laetitia Bonaparte. Having been banished from his homeland with his family, he found employment with the French administration, in the department of food supplies. During those early days he was to encounter Robespierre, with whom he developed a close friendship. It is for this very reason - and for the Jacobinic convictions he never attempted to hide - that he was labelled a "terrorist" after the 9th of Thermidor and jailed in the city of Aix in 1795. Following his appointment as Commissioner in Corsica a year later, he became a Member of Parliament for Liamone, thanks to the self-confidence he displayed in all circumstances, coupled with a vivid eloquence which was to serve him so well throughout his life, especially in political circles. Although not having reached the age of eligibility, Lucien Bonaparte managed to be elected to the famous Council of the Five Hundred, which he presided at the time of the 18th of Brumaire. It is recognized today that this republican at heart contributed significantly to the success of the coup d' Etat. Named Minister of the Interior by his brother the First consul, he was however to fall rapidly into disgrace. Lucien Bonaparte had never sought to dissimulate the deep mistrust he felt towards his brother, whom he suspected of possessing tyrannical inclinations. This was really what separated him from Napoleon, more so than mere ideological differences. Upon being appointed as Ambassador to Spain, he somewhat restored his image by ardently promoting the French cause over that of the English. He was named Tribune in 1802 and Senator shortly after. It was during this period that he decided, to his brother's utter displease, to wed Alexandrine Jacob de Bleschamp, widow of a well know banker. (His first marriage to Christine Bover had failed some years earlier.) In 1804, he retired to Rome where Pope Pius VII created the Principality of Canino especially for him. Six years later, Lucien Bonaparte left for the United States and was captured at sea by the English, being subsequently put under house arrest in Ludlow. Released in 1814, he became reconciled with the Emperor during the Hundred Days and was elected to the House of Peers. After the battle of Waterloo, he energetically lent his support to Marie-Louise's regency. As Napoleon left France for what was to be his final journey, his brother departed once again for Rome, where he was made prisoner and jailed for a time in the Turin citadel. As a result of the Pope interceding for him, Lucien Bonaparte was released and he ended his days in peaceful retirement. He died of stomach cancer at the age of 65, in the town of Viterbo. A patron of the arts, Lucien Bonaparte was admitted to the Institute as early as 1803. He owned a prized collection of rare Etruscan vases. His publications include epic poems Charlemagne, La Corse Sauvée, and a novel in two volumes entitled La Tribu Indienne.

LOT 25

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Baron Hottinguer Watch No. 702, sold on 21 Pluviose an (10 February 1801), for the sum of 864 Francs, and collected by one of his employees. Gold "simple" watch, new calibre.

Case: 18 ct., three body, undecorated, collier form, by Gustave Mermillod, No. 634. Gilt metal cuvette signed: "Breguet No. 702".
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 24"', bar caliber, signed: " Breguet No.702", with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator.
In very good condition. Diam. 60 mm.

CHF 30,000 - 40000

Sold: CHF 32,200

History: According to the repair records, the watch was returned for overhaul on 1 June 1839, at the request of a Mme. D'Escherny. Note: The size and case style of this watch are very similar to the souscription. The movement is however a fine example of the caliber named by Breguet himself as montre simple, nouveau calibre and designated as the final development for his watches made without striking or repeating; usually they were constructed in a smaller size.
Jean-Conrad BARON HOTTINGUER (1764 - 1841)
Jean-Conrad Hottinger, banker and friend of Abraham Louis Breguet, originally from Zurich, Switzerland. He began his career in Paris as a teller with Lecouteleux, well before the revolution, opening his own banking business in 1786, and the first Insurance Company in France in 1787. Wisely returning to Switzerland under the terror, he passed some time in London where he married the daughter of the wealthy Redwood family, planters from New England. After some years in America, during which he met Prince Talleyrand, amongst the most famous men of the whole Revolutionary era, he returned to Paris in 1796, and announced the re-establishment of a new banking house under the old title: " Hottinger et Cie.", in May 1798. Expansion of the business was rapid, with a bank opening in Le Havre in 1802 and another soon afterwards in Marseille. Hottinger was amongst the 200 largest shareholders in the newly formed Banque de France, and became Governor of the same in 1803. He was appointed a judge at the Tribunal de Commerce in 1806, and a member of the Chambre de Commerce in 1810 as well as a representative for La Seine to the Parliament of One Hundred Days. The records of the Breguet firm list more than 26 clocks and watches either bought by or given to him by Breguet. Seven generations of the family have, without a break, served on the board of Hottinger & Cie., which continues today as one of the leading private merchant banks. Significant dates in the early history of the Bank: 1786 - The name Hottinger appears in the Royal Almanac under the heading "Bankers for Trade and Settlements in all countries" 1787 - First Royal Insurance Company founded by J.C. Hottinger 1803 - Jean Conrad Hottinger appointed Governor of the Bank of France 1811 - Organisation by the bank of the transport of American Cotton to France 1815 - Launch of a whaling fleet to the Southern Atlantic 1816 - Introduction of Maritime Insurance 1818 - Organisation of a Savings Bank in Paris, in partnership with Benjamin Delessert 1852 - Participation in the creation of the first Paris-Lyon rail network, followed by the P.L.M., and the Northern lines. Established the General Water Company.

LOT 26

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Madame Marmont. Watch No. 742, sold on 3 Fructidor an 9 (21 August 1801), for the sum of 1500 Francs. Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating, the case engraved with the crowned monogram of Maréchal Marmont Duc de Raguse.

Case: 18 ct., four body, c o l l i e r form, by Amy Gros, No. 24, engine-turned à g r a i n s d'orge, with reeded band, the back engraved in a reserve with the monogram surmounted by a ducal crown. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 742".
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals and secret signature beneath " XIl". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, bar caliber, with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with p a r a c h u t e on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the index regulator. Repeating with a single large steel hammer, striking directly on the case, by depressing the pendant.
In good condition. Diam. 56 mm.

CHF 35,000 - 40000

Sold: CHF 43,700

Note: This watch was obviously ordered by Maréchal Marmont, but delivered to his wife whilst he was away on campaign with Napoleon.
AUGUSTE-FRÉDÉRIC-LOUIS VIESSE DE MARMONT Duke de Raguse Marshal of France (1774 -1852)
Born in Châtillon-sur-Seine in 1774, Auguste de Marmont was from a very early age the object of unfaltering admiration on the part of his family, who harbored great hopes for his future. In his teens, de Marmont was to display keen interest in anything even remotely linked to the military, an attraction which is better understood in light of the family ancestry, which boasts a number of proud military records. De Marmont's father, recognizing the youngster's obvious inclinations, soon gave up any idea of having him follow a career in the administration. Instead he sent him off to Dijon in 1789, to obtain the qualifications which would eventually enable him to be admitted into the army. De Marmont's first encounter with Napoleon Bonaparte dates from that time, neither man foreseeing of course, in those early days, what history had in store for them. In 1792, at eighteen years of age, he graduated with honors from the military school in Châlons, and joined the army shortly after as a Second Lieutenant in the artillery. In November of that year, he was instructed to join up with the 1st regiment in Metz, and was subsequently dispatched to Grenoble and then to the Tournoux garrison. Displaying intelligence and courage, he was quickly promoted to the rank of Colonel. His education meant that he could be employed in delicate missions, where more than mere bravery was required. De Marmont was for instance sent on a mission to Venice in 1797, to put to the local government a proposal of alliance with the French Republic. Other such assignments were to follow, some on the express orders of Napoleon Bonaparte himself. These included the successful recovery of the Loreto war booty - estimated at over one million Francs - after the Italian surrender in Mantua. Around that time, de Marmont married mademoiselle Perregaux, the young and charming daughter of a wealthy Parisian banker, after having refused the hand o Princess Pauline, Napoleon's very own sister. He was to display once again that same quality of bravery, when he established his pedigree as a true military man in the campaigns of North Africa. Valiantly fighting against the Mameluks of Mourad-Bey, he captured Alexandria and then Cairo in quick succession. More successes followed and de Marmont was awarded a number of illustrious honors, including that of Marshal of France, in recognition of services rendered to the country. On the strength of his military record, he was honored with the title of Duke of Ragusa, by which he is remembered today. De Marmont was also elected to the Science Academy and became a prolific writer after his retirement from the army. In his treaty entitled De l'esprit des institutions militaires, he exposes fascinating theories on the art of warfare. Other writings include the infamous Memoires which the editor Perrotin was to publish posthumously, consisting of no less than nine volumes of virulent criticism directed at everyone but himself. It is possibly for this reason that de Marmont's name is today synonymous with that of an opportunistic trouble-maker, whose besetting sin was excessive selfesteem and who never hesitated to draw the fullest personal advantage from whatever situation arose during his intrepid existence.

LOT 27

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Comte Woronzoff "Souscription" watch No. 729, sold 18 Germinal an 9 (12 April 1801), for the sum of 1200 Francs. Restored to perfect condition at the request of Monsieur le Comte Woronzoff on 1 February 1853, for the sum of 1000 Francs. Gold "montre à tact" with auxiliary five-minute dial, concentric Revolutionary and Gregorian calendar rings, with equation of time calculated to coincide with the Revolutionary calendar.

Case: 18 ct., two body, collier form, engine-turned à grains d'orge, the reeded band with gold touch pieces, small eccentric glazed aperture in the dial cover, applied gold tact arrow on the back, extended by a sector-shaped glazed aperture revealing the months, the equation of time and the additonal dial sub-divided for five minutes. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 729", with circular eccentric aperture revealing the dial.
Dial: Mat silver, with Roman numerals. Bluedsteel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 25"', souscription caliber, with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm brass balance with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Subsidiary dia] attached to the barrel bridge.
In very good condition. Diam. 62 mm.

CHF 80,000 - 100000

Sold: CHF 92,000

History: The sale registers confirm that in 1801, Breguet noted this watch simply as being sold to: Un Monsieur qui parfait pour Naples. It is however certain, that it subsequently became the property of Count Woronzoff, as the repair books confirm, that the present case, No234, was made at the same time as the watch was restored to perfect condition, following instructions received in a letter from Monsieur le Comte Woronzoff, dated 23 June 1852. The presence of the small auxiliary dial subdivided to indicate five-minute periods confirms that this watch originally had only a single hand in common with all souscription watches. The present dial, divided for two hands, was fitted during the complete overhaul carried out by Breguet. The presence of a glazed window in the à tact cover is extremely rare. Turning the cover in a clockwise direction (it must be revolved in the opposite direction to find the time with the arrow) enables the required month to be sighted in the window, and a comparison to be made between the normal months and the Republican calendar, along with the equation of time for the first day of each Décade. Only one other example of such a watch is known, currently in the collection of the Beyer Museum in Zurich. Exhibition: Musée du Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers: Les Breguet - Cinq générations d' inventeurs et de constructeurs, Paris, 1962.
Mikhaïl Seminovitch COMTE WORONZOFF (1782 - 1856) Mikhail Seminovitch Woronzoff, soldier, diplomat and administrator, was born in St. Petersburg in 1782. He was educated in England, where his father served as Ambassador, and at the age of 19, entered the army of the Caucasus, serving against the French between 1812 and 1814. After representing Russia at the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, he was subsequently named as governor of New Russia and Bassarabia in 1823. Under his command, the army besieged and captured the town of Varna in 1828 during the campaigns against the Porte. Czar Nicholas 1st created him Viceroy and military commander of the Caucasian army in 1844, and the following year he successfully stormed the small town of Dargo, the most important stronghold defending Schami. Woronzoff was promoted to the rank of Marshall of Russia in 1852, and sent to England as a diplomatic envoy in 1853. He finally retired in 1856. His career had been a marked success, not only as a military commander, but also in the field of civil administration. During his time as governor, he completely transformed the Crimea, constructing an impressive and strategically important road between Sympherol and Sebastopol, and significantly improving the latter, where a quay, avenue and a street all bore his name. He also developed vast areas of land for agriculture, and built a large country house at Aloupka surrounded by a magnificent park. Prince Woronzoff died in 1856, outlived by his wife Countess Brunicka and an only son, Semen, whose joint estates, (in 1860), were listed as including 65 small-holdings , nd 10,450 hectacres in the Kachkary district of Perekop in the Crimea.

LOT 28

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Labensky Souscription watch No. 730, sold on 21 Messidor an 9 (10 July 1801), for the sum of 1320 Francs. Gold "souscription" watch with concealed "à tact" hand, engraved comparative table for the months of the Gregorian and Republican calendars, and the equation of time correction for the Revolutionary calendar.

Case: 18 ct., three body, collier form, engineturned grains d'orge, the reeded band with gold touch pieces, gold à tact pointer on the edge of the cover. Gilt brass cuvette, signed: "Breguet, No. 730", and engraved with the Revolutionary and Gregorian calendar and equation tables.
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Breguet numerals, secret signature below " 12". Gold souscription hand.
Movement: Gilt brass 25-, signed: "Breguet, No. 730", of souscription caliber, with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, threearm plain brass balance, bimetallic compensaiton curb on the regulator. Blued-steel flat balance spring.
In very good condition. Diam. 64 mm.

CHF 80,000 - 100000

Exhibition: This watch was exhibited in Paris at the Palais Galliéra, in October 1923, on the centenary of the death of Abraham Louis Breguet, Cat. No. 47. Note: This watch differs from the previous lot only in the details of its case and dial, being constructed at the same date and bearing the following number. The cuvette is engraved with the same calendar and equation indications as appear in the aperture on the back of watch No. 729, with the exception of the small dial calibrated for 5 minutes and fractions thereof.
NIKITA, COMTE PANIN (1770-1837)
Foreign minister to Czar Paul I of Russia, being replaced by count R.V. Rostopochin. During 1799 and 1800, due to lack of confidence in the Emperor, especially his foreign policy, which had taken Russia from peace to one of being officially at war with France, unofficially at war with England, without diplomatic relations with Austria and about to embark on an invasion of British controlled India - a plot was instigated, originally led by Panin to force Paul to abdicate. Panin was an anglophyle, and when his friend, Whitworth, the English Ambassador to Russia was recalled, he lost his post as vice-chancellor and with it access to the Emperor. However he had already gained the unofficial support of Alexander - Paul's son and heir to the throne, to force his father to abdicate - and the issue was taken up by count Peter von Pahlen, who in 1801, along with fellow conspirators siezed the Mikhailovsky Palace and not only deposed the Czar but also strangled him. Alexander, though content to be Emperor, was unhappy that his father had been assassinated. Panin was recalled to St.Petersburg by Alexander, who greeted him with the words, "...alas things have not turned out as we thought". He was placed in charge of the college of Foreign Affairs and helped in the negotiations for an Anglo-Russian settlement which was signed in June 1801. Count Panin and Pahlen were retained only for a few months, until the young Emperor had found his feet, and indiscretion or insolence led to their permanent banishment and disgrace.

LOT 29

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Arthur Rubinstein Watch No.1682/4761, begun in 1822, overhauled in June 1934. Oval gold and silver cased watch with single hand, concentric calendar and thermometer.

Case: 18 ct., two body, three piece, quatre baguettes form, by Tavernier, No.3868, engineturned d grains d'orge, the band in silver, the back centred with the cyrillic initial "P" beneath a ducal crown, engraved beneath a grey champlevé and translucent enamel médaillon.
Dial: Oval, engine-turned, by Tavernier, signed: " Breguet", the off-set chapter-ring with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, with concentric date and a sector for the thermometer below in degrees Réaumur. Blued-steel pointers with Breguet souscription type hand with tapered point.
Movement: Brass with grained finish, 1 7 ' , souscription caliber: "No.4977", with central barrel three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement. Spiral balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Bimetallic thermometer mounted on the front plate under the dial, the hand movement controlled by a double rack and pinion.
In very good condition. Dim. 83 x 61 mm.

CHF 150,000 - 200000

Sold: CHF 292,250

History: This watch, certainly a unique example, has a particularly complex and interesting history. Breguet delivered on S July 1822 to Monsieur le Comte de Panin for 1000 Francs a s i m u l a c r e de montre pour portrait (simulated watch for a miniature) of which very few examples were made, certainly in oval form. This was in fact the complete watch with case, dial and hands, but not fitted with a movement. The back was locked in place by a spring catch, but when removed revealed a hidden miniature portrait frame. At the request of Prince Scherbatoff, and for the sum of 500 Francs, Breguet completed the " watch" on 15 January 1884. He used existing small souscription calibre movement No.4977, which remained in stock, having never been sold, and the watch was renumbered 4761. Arthur Rubinstein was a friend of Monsieur George Brown and frequently visited the shop when passing through Paris. He owned a small collection of Breguets, including this example and often recounted to friends that another of his favorite watches had been stolen from his room at the Waldorf Astoria in New York during a concert tour.
ARTHUR RUBINSTEIN (1886 - 1982) Arthur Rubinstein, probably the most distinguished pianist of our century. Born in Lodz on 28 January 1886, he was the seventh child in a family otherwise bereft of any musical talent. At the age of 3 1/2 he was taken to Berlin to be tested by Joachim who pronounced: "This boy may become a very great musician". He studied in Berlin under Paderovski giving his first public performance at the age of seven. Rubinstein's lifestyle and personality were as enormous as his talent. A friend of Hoffmann, Chaliapin, Saint-Sans, Stravinsky, Casals and Picasso, he was perhaps best known for his interpretation of the works of Chopin. His last performance was in 1975 at the Wigmore Hall, London at the age of 88. Forced to stop playing due to failing eyesight, he died in Geneva in 1982.

LOT 30

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Marquis de Santiago Watch No. 1160, sold on 6 Prairial an 12 (26 May 1804) , for the sum of 1680 Francs. Gold, enamel and diamond-set hunting-cased " médaillon à tact" watch. Original Breguet gold short chain and ratchet key.

Case: 18 ct., two body, Collier form, gadrooned band, the cover and back decorated in blue translucent enamel on an engine-turned ground, the a tact arrow, bow and applied decoration on the cover set with rose diamonds. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 1160".
Dial: Small eccentric, silver, fixed to the barrel bridge, with Breguet numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 14"' signed: "Breguet, No. 1160", of souscription caliber with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel flat balance spring.
In very good condition. Diam. 40 mm.

CHF 100,000 - 120000

History: The repair books record that this watch was still the property of the Marquis de San Adrian (Marquis de Santiago) when returned for overhaul on 13 July 1825. It was again repaired by Breguet on 20 July 1857, at the request of Monsieur Salveta, rue Bergère No. 11, Paris. Note: Decorative watches in gold and enamel, made by Breguet, are relatively rare and were essentially made in only two forms. One type, often large watches with pair-cases, striking movements and enamelled with flowers, coastal scenes or paillon decorated,was destined for the Islamic market, and usually sold through Breguet's agent Le Roy, in Constantinople. The others were practically all montres médaillon a tact ( such as this lot), with translucent enamelled covers and the "touch-pieces" and à tact arrow in pearls or diamonds; the decorative elements remained largely functional , the only concession being an applied motif on the back of symbolic or heraldic significance, such as a crown or monogram. Such watches, less austere in appearance than Breguet's usual production, enjoyed a certain success despite their high price, and virtually every member of the Bonaparte family owned at least one example.
JOSÉ MARIA MAGALLON Y ARMENDARIZ 5th Marquis of San Adrian and Marquis de Santiago (? - 1845)
José Maria Magallon y Amendariz, 5th Marquis of San Adrian and of Castelfuerte, Senor of Monteagudo and Ezca, Grande de Espana and Knight of the order of Calatrava. He married Dona Maria de la Soledad Isidra Rodriguez de los Rios y Sanchez de Mortaing Suso de la Vega, Marquesa of Santiago and of la Cimada, Countess of Zuewghem, and adopted her title, which he continued to use even after 1802 when he inherited his own. It is in fact the name that appears in the books at Breguet. The family seat was at Tudela near Pamplona, the capital of Navarra in Northern Spain. He was an enlightened democrat who did much to rejuvenate the economic prosperity of Navarra by encouraging the liberalisation of agriculture, and pushing through reforms to the police and local government. An ardent "Afrancesadors" - or Francophile - with many friends among the French aristocracy, he corresponded with the famous French philosopher Denis Diderot. The outstanding portrait of him was painted by Francisco Goya, in the same year that he purchased his watch from Maison Breguet and he is shown with a ribbon and seal hanging from the fob pocket of his breeches, which was in fact a customery way of carrying a watch at the time. Goya also painted his wife, the Marquesa de Santiago, in 1809.

LOT 31

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Comte S. Potocki Chronometer No.1176, sold through Monsieur Moreau à St. Petersbourg on 12 February 1809, for the sum of 4600 Francs. Gold pocket chronometer watch with four minute "tourbillon" and "échappement naturel", double subsidiary seconds and winding indicator.

Case: 18 ct., four body, by Joly, No.1282, later engraved with floral scrollwork. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No.1176".
Dial: Engine-turned gold, signed: "Breguet et Fils" , and engraved: "Régulateur à Tourbillon". Small hour dial with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, concentric outer minutes and additional small rings for the two subsidary seconds, (the one on the right may be stopped at will) a sector for the up-and-down scale calibrated for 35 hours. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 24"', signed: "Breguet, No. 1176", the inverted fusee with maintaining power, échappement naturel with two escape wheels of "12" and "3" teeth respectively, threearm bimetallic compensation balance with adjusting screws inset in the rim. Blued-steel balance spring with terminal curves. The escapement is mounted in a two-arm cage driven from the second wheel pinion and revolving once in four minutes. The right hand subsidiary seconds ring, driven from the teeth on the tourbillon carriage, may be stopped at will by means of a small bolt in the front bezel, which acts through a push piece in the dial plate.
In very good condition. Diam. 65 mm.

CHF 600,000 - 700000

Note: It is generally accepted that Breguet invented the tourbillon on his return From Switzerland in 1795, although the Patent was in fact not granted until 1801. The letter cited below ( in literal translation) may be of interest, and was addressed by Breguet on 24 Floréal an 9 (14 April 1801) to the Minister of the Interior, to present his invention: "Citizen Minister, I have the honour to present to you a memo detailing a new invention, applicable to instruments for measuring time, that I have named Régulateurs à tourbilon, and I request a patent for the construction of these regulators for a period of ten years. 1 have succeeded, by this invention, in removing through compensation the errors due to positional differences in the centres of gravity, and by the movement of the regulator, in distributing equally the friction over all parts of the pivots of the said regulator and the holes in which they turn , in such a way that the lubrication of the contact points will always be equal even as the oil thickens, and in removing many other errors that affect, to a greater or lesser extent the accuracy of the movement, in a manner that is totally beyond the present knowledge of our art, even with an infinite period of trial and error. It is after due consideration of all these advantages, with the ability to perfect the means of fabrication and the considerable expenses I have incurred in arriving at such a point, that I have decided to apply for a patent to fix the date of my invention and to compensate myself for the expenses I have incurred. Signed Breguet." The principle of his invention was to eliminate positional errors in a timekeeper. It consisted of mounting the escapement on a platform (a cage) which revolved in a given period, most usually one, but occasionally four or six minutes. The errors were therefore regularly reproduced, and cancelled each other out. The first timekeeper fitted with the invention was numbered 282, and signed on a silver plaque, fitted to the tourbillon carriage: Exete. en Messd. An 8 ( June - July 1800), with the backplate signed: 1er régulateur à tourbillon.
STANISLAS COMTE POTOCKI (1742-1821) Count Stanislas Potocki was born in 1742 in Lubin and died in 1821 in Willanow. He married Alexandra, Princess Lubomirski. Count Potocki held the knighthood of the White Eagle and Saint Stanislas Merits and was Great Master of the Polish Freemasons, he was also Nuncio of the Diet in 1776, 1786 and 1788. He left Poland after its dismemberment in 1793, was arrested in Carlsbad at the uprising of Kosciuszko, lived in captivity for eight months in Josephstadt and when the Great Duchy of Warsaw was created, he became the Senator Palatine, Head of the Council of State and of the Council of Ministers. Napoleon nominated him Minister of Culture and Education. Potocki kept these portfolios even after the Polish Kingdom had been annexed by Russia in 1815. He founded the University of Warsaw in 1816 and was elected President of the Senate in 1818. He sacrificed his entire fortune to promote literature, sciences and arts, and personally built up a beautiful collection of paintings, Etruscan vases and engravings in his Willanow castle, near Warsaw. He was the author of many works, such as "Of Eloquence and Style" in 4 volumes, published in Warsaw, 1815; " Journey to Ciemnogrod", a satirical novel in 4 volumes and a Polish translation of the great works of Winckelman on Antique Arts. David painted this equestrian portrait of him which is considered as one of the masterpieces by the artist.

LOT 32

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Son Altesse le Prince de Galle Watch No. 921, sold on 24 Floréal an 11, (14 May 1803) for the sum of 1440 Francs. Gold hunting-cased "simple" watch of "nouveau calibre".

Case: 18 ct., four body, collier form, by Joly, No. 621, engine-turned à grains d'orge, with reeded band, the back centred with a monogram of the Prince of Wales, surmounted by the plume of feathers, the interior with initials "T.S." . Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 921".
Dial: Gold engine-turned, with a circular pattern with Roman numerals on a plain reserve. Bluedsteel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass ,19"', bar caliber, with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot and bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Blued-steel flat balance spring.
in very good condition. Diam. 52 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 50000

Sold: CHF 41,400

History: This watch was collected from Breguet by the Duke of Bedford on behalf of the Prince of Wales. Note: The fact that Breguet records this watch as being collected by the Duke of Bedford on behalf of the Prince of Wales, indicates that it was a direct commission rather than a chance purchase; indeed, certain details of its construction are more in keeping with English taste of the period. With the exception of the montres tact, it is certainly one of the earliest savonette or "hunter" watches that Breguet produced, and the dial is planted with the Roman numeral III alongside the pendant (in France this was usually the position of the XII, even on savonette watches). The engine-turned centre of the dial is also atypical of Breguet, being of a circular pattern, but is reminiscent of Recordon, his agent in London. It is therefore quite possible that the watch was made for the Prince following instructions received from Recordon. With the term nouveau calibre (new calibre) Breguet described a new type of movement that he introduced for simple watches after 1796, when he returned from exile.
George Augustus Frederick PRINCE OF WALES AND LATER KING OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND (1762 - 1830) Eldest son of George III and Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, he was educated with his brother, the Duke of York, in rather severe circumstances at Kew, West London. He showed natural ability and became well versed in the classics, fluent in Italian, French and German, with considerable taste for music and the arts. His tutor, Bishop Richard Hurd said of him when he was only 15 years old that he would be "... either the most polished gentleman or the most accomplished blackguard in Europe - possibly both". George III led a very strict and frugal lifestyle, and it was possibly this that led the Prince of Wales into a whirl of pleasure seeking. He was by nature a brilliant and generous young man, and extremely handsome, but he began to anger the King by befriending the whig Parliamentarians and spending excessively, accruing massive debts - a trait that was to cause him immense problems throughout his life. He met and fell passionatley in love with a beautiful young widow, Mary Anne (Maria) Fitzherbert, who was both a Roman Catholic and a commoner. She refused to become the Prince's mistress and they secretly married in 1705, an act which breached both the Act of Settlement (disallowing the heir to the throne to marry a Roman Catholic) and the royal Marriage Act (any marriage was illegal without the King's consent). The Prince lived openly with Maria in the seaside resort of Brighton and a scandal arose, seriously jeopardising his position with Parliament, which had the power to regulate his financial allowances. Fox - a leading Whig, agreed to stand for the Prince and publically announced to the House that no such marriage had taken place, a statement that obviously upset Mrs. Fitzherbert, but she later forgave him and their relationship continued until the Prince's marriage to Princess Caroline of Brunswick. He agreed to the match to appease the King and force the government to pay off his huge debts, but from the start their marriage was doomed to failure; they did however have one daughter, Charlotte, but immediatley after her birth the Prince and Princess of Wales led seperative lives, Charlotte being in the custody of her mother. In 1811, after years of lapsing in and out of insanity, George III was finally declared insane, and the Prince became Regent. He became increasingly unpopular with the people, who saw the profligate and luxurious life led by their Regent, whilst they remained poor and starving due to the expense of the protracted war against France. They sympathised with Princess Caroline, who had had her daughter taken away from her, been evicted from Kensington Palace and made very unwelcome at Court, causing her to leave England and live in Italy until the death of George III in 1820. On ascending the throne, George IV immediatlyy ordered that no prayer for his wife should be admitted into the Prayer book, infuriating Caroline who returned to England. On the day that she arrived in London, George sent incriminating evidence of adultery charges against his wife, to both Houses of Parliament. He had been collecting information on Caroline's activities in Italy for over two years, and now brought this against her in order to gain a divorce. The House of Lords brought in a report and the Prime Minister founded a bill of pains and penalties to divorce the Queen and deprive her of her royal title; it was eventually abandoned by the government after passing through 3 readings with diminished majorities. The public was furious that such a charge should be brought about by a husband who had rejected his wife, cutting her off without protection or support and surrounding her with his spies to detect - and maybe invent - possible acts of infidelity, when he was leading such a notorious and adulterous lifestyle. Caroline died shortly after the Coronation - to which she tried to force an entry - and relieved the King from any further annoyance. The political wrangling continued, especially with respect to the Catholic Relief Bill, to which the King had always been adamantly opposed, but finally in 1829, he withdrew his objections, not having the courage to resist it any longer. He died in 1830, having outlived his daughter Charlotte, who had died in childbirth.

LOT 33

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Milady Elgin Watch No. 1193, sold on 19 Prairial an 11 (19 May 1803), for the sum of 1320 Francs. Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating.

Case:
18 ct., three body, collier form, by Amy Gros, No. 225, with reeded band, the back engine-turned à grains d'orge. Gilt metal cuvette signed: "Breguet et Fils, No. 1193".
Dial: Engine-turned gold, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Roman numerals on a plain reserve. Bluedsteel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 20"', bar caliber in the style of Lépine, with free standing barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating with two large polished steel hammers directly on the case, operated by depressing the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 53 mm.

CHF 50,000 - 60000

Sold: CHF 57,500

Provenance: From the 1930's this watch was in the collection of the Elgin Watch Company, of Elgin, llinois, U.S.A. Although the exact details of how and when it was acquired by the Elgin Company, are unknown, information kindly supplied by the present Lord Elgin confirms that the late Earl visited America on several occasions, and it may therefore have been presented to the museum.
THOMAS BRUCE 7th Earl of Elgin, 11th Earl of Kincardine (1766-1841) Thomas Bruce, seventh Earl of Elgin and eleventh Earl of Kincardine was born on 20th July, 1766, succeeding to his estates and titles in 1771. He was educated in England at Harrow and Westminster schools and continued his studies at St. Andrews University in Scotland and then in Paris where he studied Civil and Public law under Bouchaud, Professor at the Ecole de Droit. It was his forbear, Robert Bruce, King of the Scots from 1306 to 1329, who led his army at the Battle of Bannockburn to defeat King Edward II of England in 1314. His sword still exists and is kept at Broomhall, the Elgin family seat in Scotland. In 1633, Sir Thomas Bruce, the third Baron of Kinloss was created First Earl of Elgin. The seventh Earl Elgin joined the British Army in 1785 in which he rose to become a general in 1837. To mark his coming of age he had his portrait painted by Anton Graff of Dresden. He was depicted as an Ensign of the Guards in a scarlet tunic and wearing his single epaulette. He began his diplomatic career in 1790, being sent on a special mission to Emperor Leopold in that year. He then became British envoy to Brussels between 1792 and 1795 and Berlin between 1795 and 1799. It was now that he began to develop his study and serious interest in Grecian art for which he was to become world famous. Immediately prior to his appointment to the Ottoman Porte as Ambassador at Constantinople he married in 1799, Mary, the vivacious and attractive only child of William Nesbit Hamilton, an excessively wealthy soldier, landowner and member of Parliament. In 1801, Lord Elgin received permission from the Porte not only to "fix scaffolding around the ancient Temple of the Idols (the Parthenon) and to mold the ornamental sculpturing and visible figures thereon in plaster and gypsum", but also"to take away pieces of stone with old inscriptions thereon". It was not Elgin's original plan, but the constant injuries suffered by the sculptures of the Parthenon and other monuments at the hands of the Turks induced him to undertake their removal along with other antiquities. He then undertook the hazardous and expensive task of shipping the famous "Elgin Marbles" and other artifacts back to England. He elected to travel back overland through France arriving in Paris with his family early in May 1803. The Elgins were still in Paris when war was declared between England and France, and on the 18th May, 1803, Lord Elgin was made a prisoner of war. Lady Elgin wrote a series of letter to her mother, revealing her numerous concerns and anxieties during this period as well as the social gatherings with friends that included the Bonapartes. She was concerned with Lord Elgin's health and she records in her letter of the 28th May that the hotel where they were staying had a garden. "... where Elgin walks for I cannot get him to stir out. We are expecting a positive answer whether they will allow us to go or not". In late May a further disaster occurred when the ship carrying the precious Marbles was captured by the French Navy. Lady Elgin did everything she could to cheer`her husband up and on the 9th June she bought him a watch (number 1193) from Breguet. The ship with the marbles intact was recaptured on the 14th June. Although living in comfort, Lord Elgin remained a prisoner of war until 1806. Lady Elgin remained with him, having, as she records in letters, her portrait painted by the court painter François-Bascel- Simon Gérard (1770-1837) in April 1805. Gérard had painted Napoleon and his family including his mother Madam Mère, and under Louis XVIII was "Premier Peintre". The war had, however, put their marriage under considerable strain and the Elgins were divorced in 1808. Lady Elgin immediately remarried while Lord Elgin did so in 1810 to Elizabeth Oswald of Dunnikier (1790-1860), who recorded in her reminiscences that as a bride-to-be "In the middle of the company he took his watch off his neck, a valuable repeater made by Breguet, and put it around my neck - oh how I love his first gift...". In 1816 the British Government paid £35,000 to Lord Elgin for the "Elgin Marbles" and deposited them in the British Museum. They were said to have cost the Earl no less then £74,000. He became a Trustee of the British Museum in 1816 and President of the Society of Antiquities in 1823 holding both appointments up to the time of his death in Paris in 1841. He bought another Breguet, apparently a keyless one in a half hunter case, in the 1830's, and his interest in horology led him to acquire a mantel clock in a fine neo-classical case by Janvier, that has a dedication to him, and a long case regulator by another famous French horologist Ferdinand Berthoud.

LOT 34

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Lord Paget. Astronomical watch No. 2835, sold on 23 March 1825, for the sum of 4800 Francs. Extra flat gold watch with quarter-repeating, age and phase of the moon, constructed on the principals of the "garde-temps". Original Breguet gold short chain and ratchet key.

Case: 18 ct., two body, by Tavernier, No. 3331, engine-turned grams d orge, the back with bayonet fixing. Dial: Eccentric, engine-turned silver, by Tavernier, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, subsidiary seconds and small sector indicating the slow/fast regulator position, aperture for phase of the moon, the age engraved on the edge. Movement: Gilt brass, 19"', bar caliber, the barrel with female winding square, counterpoised straight line lever escapement with jewelled pallets and long lever, two-arm bimetallic compensation balance with adjusting screws inset in the rim, parachute on both pivots. Bluedsteel flat balance spring with terminal curves. Repeating with a single gong with one hammer, striking on a steel intermediate spring block.
In good condition. Diam. 49 mm.

CHF 180,000 - 220000

Sold: CHF 248,250

Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 230, figs.251 a-c. Note: Both supremely elegant and technically brilliant, this watch is an example of Breguet's most refined production for civil use. An exceptionally flat repeater, it is fitted with the final development of Breguet's straight line counterpoised lever escapement, with jewelled pallets adjustable for depth, and with draw (the angle between the pallet stones and the escape wheel teeth, being such that in the resting position the lever is "drawn" clear of the roller, to avoid any frictional contact during the free arcs of the balance - Breguet was the first watchmaker in France to employ draw in his lever escapements). Furthermore, parachute type shock protection is fitted to both pivots of the balance staff, and the bimetallic balance is of the most advanced design with the adjusting and poising screws inset into the rim. The balance spring has a terminal curve of the form that has since become known as the "Breguet spring". Quarter-repeating is accomplished using a single gong with one hammer striking on an intermediate sprung steel block to ensure a clean and even strike and avoid potential extraneous vibrations that can occur if the hammer is in too close proximity to the gong. Finally, the engine-turned silver dial is perfectly balanced despite the eccentric arrangement and the inclusion of both the moon and the regulator sector. The case back, secured in place by bayonet fittings, is turned to reveal the winding squares.
HENRY WILLIAM PAGET 1st Marquess of Anglesey Earl of Uxbridge and Baron Paget 1768 - 1854
Henry William Paget, eminent soldier and statesman, was born in London on17 May 1768, educated at Westminster School and at Christchurch, Oxford, he enterd Parliament in 1790 representing Carnarvon and later Milborne Port on different occasions up to 1810. It was however as a soldier that he is best remembered. In 1793, he raised a regiment of infantry, the Staffordshire volunteers, which became the 80th of the line at the outbreak of war with France. In June 1794, they joined the army under the Duke of York in Flanders, Paget holding the temporary rank of Lieutenant-colonel, being for a time in charge of a brigade. In 1795 he took a permanent position in the army, commissioned as a Lieutenant in the 7th Royal Fusiliers, rising through to Captain on the 11th March, Major on the 20th May and finally Lieutentant-colonel of the 16th Light Dragoons on 15th June. By now commanding a cavalry brigade, in 1799 he was sent to Holland with the expeditionary force - half English, half Russian, again under the Duke of York. He distinguished himself by re-capturing British guns seized by Vandamme and taking 500 prisoners at Kastricum, despite the expedition as a whole being considered a failure. Upon his return to England, Paget devoted himself to his regiment, making it one of the best in the army. He became Major-general in 1802, and Lieutenant-general in 1808. Sent to join Sir John Moore in the same year, he landed at Corunna, and found the army at Salamanca, and moved on to Sahagun which was occupied by the French. Arriving before daylight with the 10th and 15th Hussars, he sent the 10th straight on and led the 15th round the town to cut off the enemy's retreat. The alarm however had been raised, and 600 Dragoons were drawn up in line against his force of 400. He charged and routed the enemy, taking 167 prisoners. His actions throughout the campaign were exemplary: at Mayorga on 26th December he routed a strong body of French horse, at Benavente he drove the French under General Lafèvre-Desnouettes back accross the river Esla taking seventy prisoners, including the General. General Junot, commander of the French army in Portugal said of Paget: "J'ai toujours supposé que Lord Paget Était le plus beau garçon d'Angleterre ? Lord Paget became Earl of Uxbridge on the death of his father on 13 March 1812. He had been unemployed in the army since 1809, but was ordered to Flanders in the spring of 1815. Appointed to command the whole of the cavalry and horse artillery under the Duke of Wellington, he was given carte blanche with regard to the direction and movements of his forces. In his element at the head of his men, he was to write later : "It was the prettiest field-day of cavalry and horse artillery that I ever witnessed ". After leading the household brigade aginst the French cuirassiers of Milhaud, Uxbridge received a bullet in the knee from one of the last shots fired in the battle, and his leg had to he amputated. The limb was buried in a garden at Waterloo, and a monument placed over it which became a source of income to the owner of the property. Uxbridge was created Marquis of Anglesey on 4th July 1815 in recognition of his services at Waterloo, made a Knight of the Garter in 1818 and acted as Lord High Steward at the coronation of George IV. Appointed as General of the army in 1819, he succeeded the Duke of Wellington as Master- General of the ordnance in 1827. Now began the seconds phase of his career. In 1828 he became Lord-lieutenant of Ireland under the Duke of Wellington's administration and left for Ireland determined to be even-handed in his actions. The county was in ferment over the question of catholic emancipation, and Uxbridge realised that concessions would have to be made; a view that brought him into sharp conflict with the King and the government at home. His support for reform led to a recall in 1829, despite his popularity with the people, but he was re-instated under Lord Grey in 1830. Increasing discontent in Ireland made his second tour less successful than the first, and his most satisfactory work was probably the establishment of a board of education. Upon his return to England, he was made a Field-marshal in 1846, and Lord-lieutenant of Staffordshire in 1849. He died at the age of sixty-eight on 10 April 1854, and was buried in the family vault at Lichfield, his funeral cortege being escorted to Euston station by Queen Victoria, H.R.H. Prince Albert and about sixty others of the principal nobilty and gentry. The Marquess had married twice, first to Lady Caroline Villiers, by whom he had three sons and five daughters, following a divorce in 1810, he married again to Charlotte, daughter of the Earl of Cadogan, by whom he had a further three sons and daughters. His contribution to the history of his time was considerable and his character was summed up in his obituary published in the Examiner, "It might almost be said that his character could be read off at sight, the express image of chivalry as he was. His bearing bespoke the man, so gallant, so high, so courteous. Seldom have bravery, gentleness and generosity been combined in such noble proportions".

LOT 35

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Blandfort Watch No. 3012, sold on 20 July 1818, for the sum of 2000 Francs. Very thin gold watch with two barrels, constructed on the principals of the "gardetemps". Original gold Breguet short double chain and ratchet key.

Case: 18 ct., two body, quatre baguettes form, by Tavernier, No. 3567, engine-turned à grains d'om' e, the back with bayonet fixing and engraved in the centre with a small monogram surmounted by a crown.
Dial: Eccentric, engine-turned silver, by Tavernier, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Roman numerals on a plain reserve. Small eccentric subsidiary seconds with sector for indicating the slow/fast regulator position. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22-, bar caliber, the twin going barrels separately wound with female winding squares, counterpoised straight line lever escapement with jewelled pallets and long lever, two-arm bimetallic compensaiton balance, the timing screws inset in the rim, with parachute on both pivots. Blued-steel flat Breguet balance spring.
In good condition. Diam. 54 mm.

CHF 60,000 - 80000

Sold: CHF 82,800

History: The repair books record that this watch was overhauled on the 19 January 1833 at the request of the Marquess of Blanfort(sic), delivered by the British Embassy. It returned again for repair on 11 April 1836, delivered by the Baron Rothschild. On 3 March 1847 a Monsieur Fredk. Faber, attached to the Dutch Legation brought the watch to the workshops for cleaning, and a remark in the margin notes that it belonged to the Duke of Marlborough (the Marquis of Bland ford had succeeded to the title of Duke of Marlborough on the death of his father on 5 March 1840). Provenance: Formerly in the Sir David Salomons Collection, No. 21. Sold at Christie's, London, as lot 46, catalogue part Ill on 2 November 1965. Literature: Illustrated in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p.235, figs. 262 a-d. Note: Although this watch is not fitted with repeating and a moon phase dial, it nevertheless incorporates the same refinements in the movement as the previous lot, with the addition of double barrels, a feature more usually applied to watches destined for scientific use. (see note for lot 22). For a discussion and detailed drawing of the escapement used in this watch and the previous lot see George Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 304 - 309, figs. 389 a-c and 390.
GEORGE SPENCER CHURCHILL 6th Duke of Marlborough, Marquis of Blandford, Earl of Sunderland, Earl of Marlborough, Baron Spencer, Baron Churchill. (1793 - 1857)
George Spencer Churchill, statesman and member of the aristocracy was born on 27 December 1793, the eldest son of George, 5th Duke of Marlborough and Susan, daughter of the Earl of Galloway. Descended from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, the celebrated soldier,who fought under James Il, Willaim of Orange and Queen Anne. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, and first entered public life as the Marquis of Blandford, becoming M.P. for Woodstock, which he represented until 1832, and again from 1838 -1842, when on the death of his father, he moved to the House of Lords. He was married three times : first in 1819 to his cousin, Lady Jane Stewart, daughter of the Earl of Galloway, who died in 1844. Two years later he married the Hon. Charlotte Flower, daughter of Viscount Ashbrook, and after her death in 1850 he was married to Jane Stewart (coincidentally the sane name as his first wife) daughter of the Hon. Edward Stewart. His eldest son by his first marriage, John Winston, succeeded him to the title. His ancestor,John Churchill, the 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1650-1722, was the most celebrated Captain of his age, in some respects the first General in the military annals of England. As a boy he was a page to the Duke of York, and later obtained a commission as ensign in the Guards. He fought for Louis XIV at Maestricht, where he distinguished himself. He won favour with the Duke of fought in Flanders and Scotland and in 1682 was created Lord Churchill of Eyemouth, and later given the command of the 1st Regiment of Dragoons. When the Duke of York ascended the throne as James II, Churchill was raised to the peerage and became ambassador to Paris. In 1688 however, he turned on his royal benefactor in favour of William, Prince of Orange, who as King of England elected Churchill to the Privy Council and made him Earl of Marlborough. Later he fell out of favour with William and was confined to the Tower of London. On the accession of Queen Anne to the throne, he was appointed Captain General of her forces and in 1702 given the title of Duke of Marlborough and Marquis of Bland ford. Following the victory of Blenheim in 1704, the royal manor of Woodstock was given to him and the Palace of Blenheim built at the nations expense.

LOT 36

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Duc de Norfolk Watch No. 3388, sold on 29 August 1821, for the sum of 2400 Francs. Gold hunting-cased watch of "première classe" with half quarter-repeating. Original gold key.

Case: 18 ct., three body, quatre baguettes form, by Tavernier, No.3675, engine-turned a grains d'orge. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, Horlogers de la Marine Royale, No. 3388".
Dial: Engine-turned silver, protected by a glass, with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, subsidiary seconds at "Ill", secret signatures on either side of "XII". Blued-steel Breguet hands. Movement: Gilt brass, 21"', bar caliber, with ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Bluedsteel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating on one gong with a single hammer striking on a steel intermediate spring block, with pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In perfect condition. Diam. 55 mm.

CHF 80,000 - 120000

History: This watch was constructed between 1818 and 1820. The records show it was consigned to a Monsieur Germain, on 16 September 1820, for the sum of 2400 Francs. Subsequently returned and sent to Fatton in London, for the same price, on 13 July 1821, it was then sold to the Duke of Norfolk. Note: This watch is a fine example of a Premiere Classe repeater in a hunter case. The pull-twist repeating piston passes through the pendant, and doubles as a case opening push-piece by the addition of neatly arranged interlocking levers mounted on the plate of the movement. As is the case with most of Breguet's huntercased key wind watches, the dial is arranged with the numerals XII adjacent to the pendant, in contrast to the English makers and the vast majority of keyless hunter watches where the III appears in this position (see lot 30 for an exception).
BERNARD EDWARD HOWARD 12th Duke of Norfolk Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk, Baron Fitz-Alan, Clun and Oswaldestre and Maltravers. The Premier Duke and Earl in the peerage of England next to the Blood Royal. Hereditary Earl Marshal of England. (1765 - 1842)
Born on 21 November 1765, eldest son of Henry Howard and Juliana, daughter of Sir William Molyneux, he suceeded to the Ducal honours when his cousin Charles, 11th Duke of Norfolk died in 1815. Unlike his predecessors, he was a devout Roman Catholic, and by an Act of Parliament passed in 1824, he was allowed to exercise his hereditary office of Earl Marshal ( he had been excluded due to his religion). After the passing of the Roman Catholic Relief Bill in 1829, he was admitted to the House of Lords and nominated as a Privy Councillor in 1830; he was elected a Knight of the Garter four years later. He was a well educated man, his early life was spent in comparative privacy (as a consequence of the penal laws), but due to his amiable and unaffected character he was surrounded by sincere friends. Though politically he did not have much influence, he was a great supporter of the Arts and Sciences, a generous benefactor, giving both to the Established church and to charities, and respected by his tenants as a kind and understanding landlord. In 1789 he married Lady Elizabeth Belasyse, daughter of the Earl of Fauconberg; they had an only son Henry, but after five years they were divorced and he remained single for the rest of his life. That the Howards are an ancient family is without doubt, and some historians argue that the line started with the infamous Hereward, who stood defiantly against William the Conqueror.The line however can be easily traced to William Howard, who was a large landowner in Norfolk and became chief justice there in 1297. His grandson, John was Admiral and Captain of the King's Navy and Sheriff of Norfolk, and by marrying Alice de Boys, who brought with her a considerable inheritance, he greatly increased the family fortunes. The families of Thomas de Mowbray - Duke of Norfolk and Richard Fitz- Alan, Earl of Arundel, became linked with the Howards when Sir Robert Howard married Margaret, daughter of Thomas de Mowbray, who was the grandson of Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Norfolk, Marshal of England and the eldest son of Edward 1. Their son John, was an eminent Yorkist (partly due to his princely birth and magnificent fortune), who distinguished himself in the French wars of Henry VI, and in 1483 he was created Earl-Marshal of England and Duke of Norfolk. He died fighting for his sovereign Richard, at Bosworth Field. His son Thomas, Earl of Surrey, was also a renowned military commander, contributing to the victory at Flodden in 1513. His grandson, Henry was a notable statesman, warrior and poet, and one of the brightest and most gallant members of the House of Howard, but was iniquitously executed by Henry VIII, in what proved to be the King's last cruel act. Future generations of the Howards fell to the fate of the reigning monarch, being stripped of some of their many titles, and it was not until 1603, under James 1, that Thomas Howard had the title of Earl of Arundel restored to him, and in 1664 that of the Duke of Norfolk restored to his grandson, Thomas, by Act of Parliament.

LOT 37

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Frackman Watch No. 1736, sold on 6 Fructidor an 13 (24 August 1805), for the sum of 1488 Francs. Gold watch with quarter-repeating.

Case: 18 ct., three body, collier form, by Tavernier, No. 2419, the back engine-turned with concentric circular pattern and reeded band. Gilt metal cuvette hinged on the movement, and signed: "Breguet, No. 1736".
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, secret signature below "12". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', bar caliber with free standing barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance with parachute on the top pivot and bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Blued-steel flat balance spring.
In very good condition. Diam. 57 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 50000

Sold: CHF 48,300

History: The repair books record that this watch was overhauled on 13 October 1869 and 21 October 1872 at the request of Prince Alexis Troubetskoy. Note: The circular pattern engine-turning used on the case of this watch is uncommon in Breguet's production.
Alexis Alexeevitch PRINCE TROUBETZKOI (1847-1914) Member of the Council of Saint-Pierre, Deputy elected by the Mobility from Svenigorond between 1881 and 1887. Married Natalia (1856-1913), daughter of Dimitri Alexandrovitch Vsevolojsky and Princess Ekaterina Nikolaevna Troubetskoï.

LOT 38

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Esseyd Aly Effendi Watch No. 2090, sold on 16 September 1808, for the sum of 3360 Francs. Gold and enamel pair-cased watch with " grande" and "petite" sonnerie striking and quarter-repeating, made for the Islamic market.

Case: 18 ct., three body inner, and two body outer, by Amy Gros, No.894, decorated in scarlet translucent enamel on engine-turned ground, the bezels with champlevé enamel floral motifs, the back with patterns in gold paillons in the Islamic taste. The interior of the outer case engraved: " Hadji Assim Effendi". Gold cuvette signed: " Breguet, No. 2090".
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with gilt Turkish numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands. Gilt brass dial plate, also signed: "Breguet, No. 2090".
Movement: Gilt brass, 20"', full plate caliber, twin barrels retained between a single bridge, signed: " Breguet, No. 2090". Two trains with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain gilt brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Grande/petite sonnerie on two (gongs with two hammers, the strike/silent Grande/petite selection levers in the edge of the dial. Independent quarter-repeating train with two hammers and two gongs by the pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 62 mm.

CHF 250,000 - 300000

Sold: CHF 270,250

Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 207, figs. 201a-d. Note: Both the decoration and technical features of this watch are typical of the finest examples made by Breguet for the Islamic market. In common with most of these "luxury" watches, usually ordered through Le Roy, Breguet's agent in Constantinople, there is a double or pair case and a striking train. It is interesting to note that these are virtually the only watches in his entire production which radically depart from the purely functional styling that so characterised his work. Nevertheless, the Near East represented an important market at the time, and watches with similar decoration on the cases were also produced in England and Switzerland.
SEYYID MEHMED E S 'A D E F F E N D I Official historiographer Ottoman scientist (1789 -1848) Es'Ad Effendi's father, who died accidentally in 1804 during his journey to Medina to take up the position of "Kadi", left his family in stark poverty. At a young age, Es'Ad Effendi took his holy orders and occupied various posts within the Church. In October 1825, he succeeded Shani-zade Ata Allah Efendi as "wak'a-nüwis", an important clerical position he was to occupy until his death twenty three years later. Thanks to his "Uss-i zafer", Es'Ad Effendi won the favor of the Turkish ruler of the time, Emperor Mahmud II, who awarded him the title of "Kadi" of the army in 1828, and subsequently that of "Kadi" of Uskudar. He was named director of the official newspaper "Takwim al-waka'i" from its very first day of publication in 1831. In September 1834, he was given the important position of "Kadi" of Istanbul and sent a year later to neighboring Persia to congratulate Muhammad Shah on his accession to the throne. A long and painful illness was to interrupt his career, but after the Tanzimat, Es'Ad Effendi became an active member of the "Medjlis-i ahkam-i adlyye", the Council of Legal Ordinances. Later, he was named "Nakib al-ashraf" and "Kadi Asker" of Rumeli, a position he occupied from 1843 to 1844. In 1845, Es'Ad Effendi played an important role in the primary school reforms and, as a result, was appointed to the Public Education Council, which he presided until his death. He is buried in the garden of the library he founded in the Yerebatan suburb of Istanbul. His collection of books, one of the most comprehensive in Turkey/ today, contains more than 3'700 manuscripts and may be admired in the public library of Suleymaniye.

LOT 39

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Wenham Watch No. 4302, delivered on commission on 7 November 1828, for the sum of 1112 Francs. Silver and gold "simple" watch.

Case: 18 ct., four body, quatre baguettes form, by Joly, No. 516, engine-turned à grains d'orge, the band in silver. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 4302".
Dial: Engine-turned silver, signed: "Breguet et Fils", witch Roman numerals on a plain reserve, double secret signature on either side of "XII". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 20"', bar caliber with overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot, and bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Blued-steel flat balance spring.
In very good condition. Diam. 53 mm.

CHF 30,000 - 35000

Sold: CHF 36,800

History: Hugues Wenham was the agent for Breguet in St. Petersburg. As this watch was never returned to Paris for overhaul, the eventual purchaser's name is not recorded. Note: The case of this watch presents a particular characteristic of Breguet's work, with the covers being made in gold and the band in silver. Such a mixture of metals was certainly not used for reasons of economy, as the cuvette, which remains hidden, is of gold. In fact Breguet quite often combined the two metals (very occasionally also gold and platinum) to provide a contrast in the appearance of his cases, the silver souscription watches being particularly distinctive with simply the rims and ring in gold. The use of different materials in combination for the construction of watch cases has become an integral part of their design in modern times.

LOT 40

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Recordon Watch No. 2097, sold on 17 October 1807, for the sum of 2060 Francs. Gold "moyenne grandeur" watch with quarterrepeating.

Case:18 ct., three body, collier form, by Joly No.1361, the back engine-turned à grains d'orge with reeded band. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 2097".
Dial: Engine-turned gold, signed: "Breguet et Fils", with Roman numerals on a plain reserve. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 19"', bar caliber, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement with threearm pain brass balance with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Repeating on a single gong with a single hammer by a pulltwist piston through the pendant.
In good condition. Diam. 47 mm.

CHF 30,000 - 35000

Sold: CHF 41,400

History: The repair books record that this watch was returned for overhaul on 18 December 1827 at the request of Monsieur Alexandre de Bosnovoff, Rue de l'Université no. 27, Paris. Note: Recordon was Breguet's first agent in London. He was active in business on his own account from approximately 1778 to 1796, although the firm continued until approximately 1816 when it was taken over by Peter DesGranges.