204 lots

LOT 1

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Buyer unknown. Clock, unnumbered, sold before 1780. Gilt bronze and marble striking mantle clock with calendar.

Case: White marble, gilt bronze mounts with garlands of flowers flanked on both sides by volutes with floral urns and cock birds, a bronze putti in the foreground, with urn finial, on eight beaded pattern gilt bronze feet.

Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet A Paris", with Arabic hour numerals, and concentric outer date ring. Gilt brass hands of engraved entrelnc form with fleur de lys points.

Movement: Brass with circular plates and two trains, the back plate signed: "Breguet à Paris", anchor escapement with silk suspended plain pendulum, hour and half hour striking on a bell, the star pierced locking-plate visible on the back plate.

In very good condition. Dim. 530 x 420 x 140 mm.

CHF 15,000 - 20000

Sold: CHF 69,000

History: This clock was made before the records, currently preserved by Maison Breguet, were begun. It is therefore impossible to give an exact date of sale, price or the name of the buyer.

Note: The signature "Breguet à Paris" was not used after 1791, and at the time this clock was produced Breguet, along with Jean Antoine Lépine, were practically the only watchmakers in Paris to use Arabic numerals on the dials.

Literature: Illustrated and described in the 5th Edition of Tardy: La Pendille Française, Part Two, p. 57.

LOT 2

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Betancourt. Watch No. 88, constructed between an 4 and an 5 (1796-1797), at a cost of 1378 Francs, sold in an 6 (1798) for an unspecified sum. Silver watch with jump hours, "grande sonnerie" striking and quarter-repeating.

Case: Four body, bassine a filets unique form, by Joly, No. 833. Silver cuvette, signed: "Breguet, No. 88".
Dial: White enamel, with Breguet numerals and slightly off-set subsidiary seconds, (disc possibly replaced), secret signature below "12". Blued-steel Breguet hands with open points. Gilt metal dial plate, signed: "Breguet, No. 88".
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', full plate caliber, with turned pillars, two trains, cylinder escapement with three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Unpierced four wheel grande sonnerie striking train, striking on two gongs with three position milled gold button on the pendant, rotated clockwise to release the repeating, and anticlockwise to silence the striking. The middle position engages the strike train.
In good condition. Diam. 59 mm.

CHF 12,000 - 15000

Sold: CHF 25,300

History: The records confirm that this watch was initially delivered in a gold case. However, the repair books remark that in February 1838, when it was returned for overhaul, at the request of Monsieur Mariano de la Pedrueza, it was fitted with a silver case by Breguet. According to the hallmarks the case was made after 1 April 1822.

Note: Breguet employed a button mounted on the pendant to operate several different forms of striking work on his earliest watches, and it is most likely the precursor for his invention of the pulltwist piston, later used for all the repeating

LOT 3

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Buyer Unknown Watch No.91/122, begun circa 1775, entered in the books on 7 November 1791 under No.122. Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating.

Case: 20 ct., two body polished, by Gustave Mermillod (punched with the mark of the Fermiers Généraux Jean Baptiste Fouache et Dominque Compant, and the date letter "L" in use between 16 July 1774 and 15 July 1775).
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet" with Arabic numerals (small repair on the edge). Gold hands. The gilt metal dial plate engraved: " No.91", the " No. 122", below the front plate under the hammer.
Movement: Gilt brass, full plate caliber, the back signed: "Breguet A Paris, No. 91", with turned Dillars, verge escapement, three-arm plain brass valance, with florally pierced and engraved bridge cock with steel end-plate. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Repeating with two hammers directly on the case by depressing the pendant.
In very good condition Diam. 47 mm.

CHF 30,000 - 40000

Sold: CHF 43,700

History: This watch is certainly one of the earliest made by Breguet after he set up in business in 1775. As the records did not begin until 1787 it was therefore not recorded at the time, but was entered into stock under No. 122 in 1791. Breguet gives no information relating to its manufacture, date of sale, nor the price and name of the buyer, which was not uncommon in the first stock book.

Note: The Arabic numerals are identical to those used by Jean Antoine Lépine from about 1770, and the signature is typical of Breguet's work prior to the Revolution. The case is stamped with the mark of Gustave Mermillod who is recorded as

LOT 4

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Comte le Moine Watch No. 231, entered into the books on 2 January 1793, sold for the sum of 800 Francs, the date of sale not recorded. Silver watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating and unusual month calendar for 31 days. Original Breguet silver short chain and key.

Case: Two body, polished with gold rim, by Joly, No.222 (with the mark of the gold Général Jean François Kalandrin, and the date letter "P" for 1789).
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet", with gilt Breguet numerals and concentric calendar ring ( hair crack and restoration). The calendar hand revolves anti-clockwise, with the number 0 following the 31st. day of the month, positioned below the winding square, and therefore forcibly reminding the user to advance the hand which would otherwise cover the aperture and prevent the watch being rewound. Blued-steel Breguet hands. Gilt dial plate signed: "Breguet àParis No. 231".
Movement: Gilt metal, full plate, signed: "Breguet A Paris No. 231", with turned pillars, verge escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, bric ge-cock pierced and engraved with floral scroll work with polished steel end-piece. Blued-steel flat balance spring. Repeating with two hammers striking directly on the case by depressing the pendant.

In good condition. Diam.53 mm.

CHF 22,000 - 26000

Sold: CHF 27,600

Note: The signature "Breguet à Paris" was used up until 1791, and the gilt numerals are a precursor of the style now generally called " Breguet numerals". The calendar mechanism although conventional in operation, provides an elegant solution, typical of Breguet, to the problem of the owner forgetting to reset the date at the end of the month according to the number of days therein. Later on Breguet found another answer to the same problem; the calendar counted 30 days with a "0" in place of the number "31", and the mechanism was constructed in such a way that the hand remained stationary over the "0" until the user advanced it by hand to the 1st day of the following month.

LOT 5

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur E. Ericcen Watch No. 54, sold on 21 Vendémiaire an 11 (13 October 1802), for the sum of 1600 Francs. Gold watch, with jump hours and 10-minute repeating, using both a gong and the case block.

Case: 18 ct., two body, by Jeanneret, engineturned à grains d'orge, with reeded band, the back centred with an engraved monogram surmounted by a count's crown.
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals and eccentric subsidiary seconds at "2", secret signature beneath "12" ( small chip). Gilt metal dial plate signed: "Breguet No. 54". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, full plate, the inverted caliber similar to that used for the repeating garde-temps, with the barrel retained by a bridge; overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb mounted on the regulator. Repeating the hours à toc, the hammer striking directly on the case, the same hammer striking the "10" minutes on a polished steel gong fixed to the interior of the case.
In good condition. Diam. 57 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 45000

Note: This watch exhibits several interesting features. It is a typical example of the first watches produced by Breguet after 1790, which were such a distinct improvement on the work of contemporary watchmakers, and the movement caliber is of the type developed for the first repeating garde-temps watches. Furthermore the double system of repeating, dumb for the hours and on a gong for the fractions, is another example of Breguet's ingenuity. He was the first to use a gong fixed to the inside of the case and one of the very few watchmakers to make "10" minute repeaters. The gold case is also typical in style of the first garde-temps watches.

LOT 6

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Aux Frères Chaudoir Watch No. 55, sold on 29 Pluviose an 10 (18 February 1802). Gold watch, with jump hours and 10- minute repeating, using both a gong and the case block.

Case: 18 ct., two body, by Mermillod, No. 882, engine-turned ô grains d'orge, the back with an oval blank reserve.
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals and subsidiary seconds at "2", secret signature below "12" (virtually invisible hair cracks). Gilt brass dial plate signed: "Breguet, No. 55". Gold Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, inverted full plate caliber of the type used for repeating garde-temps watches, the back plate relieved for the barrel which is retained by a bridge; overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Bluedsteel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Hour repeating à toc, with single hammer striking directly on the case, the same hammer striking the 10 minutes on a blued-steel gong fixed to the interior of the case.
In good condition. Diam. 57 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 50000

Sold: CHF 55,200

History: Returned to Breguet for overhaul, at the request of a Monsieur Maze in 1828. For a note on this watch see the previous lot, the two being very similar and bearing consecutive Nos.

LOT 7

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Groi Watch No. 149bis, sold to London in February 1792. Gold watch with dumb quarter-repeating and special escapement.

Case: 18 ct., polished, two body, with invisible hinges and fixed bezel, by Decombaz, No. 614. Gilt metal cuvette hinged to the movement, and signed: "Breguet, No. 149 bis", with instructions for winding and hand setting. Protecting case covered in green dyed fish-skin.
Dial: White enamel, by Decombaz, signed: " Breguet à Paris", and on the back: No. 614, with Arabic numerals. Gold Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 21-, Lépine caliber, with free standing barrel, wolf's-teeth, virgule escapement, three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel flat balance spring with index regulator. Repeating on the case with a large single polished hammer, by depressing the pendant.
In very good condition. DIam. 62 mm.

CHF 50,000 - 60000

Sold: CHF 63,250

Note: This watch is one of the very first made by Breguet employing a bridge caliber, and is virtually identical to the examples developed by Jean Antoine Lépine. The illustrations shown opposite are taken from plate 10 of the book by Louis Moinet entitled: Nouveau Tmite General d' Horlogerie, a book that was in fact being written by Breguet before his death. Moinet had been requested by Breguet in 1819 to help him complete a book on horology that had been under preparation for nearly 30 years. For a time Moinet lived in an appartment provided at Breguet's home, but was asked to move two months before the master's death. He moved, taking all the manuscripts and designs with him, and the court battle for their return and subsequent attempts by the family to prevent the publication of the book endured for many years. In the minutes of the clerk at the 12th District Court in Paris, a judgement entered in 1825 at the request of Antoine Louis Breguet states (in literal translation of certain passages): "As far as the manuscripts actually deposited with the clerk to the Police Tribunal are annotated in the hand of Monsieur Breguet, who was responsible for their execution and their editing, along with the accompanying explanatory text, all of which were compiled at the residence of Monsieur Breguet, by his designer, at his cost and under his supervision... as far as all the facts and circumstances prove and demonstrate that the contested material is the property of the late Monsieur Breguet and that if Moinet wished to retain them or appropriate them for himself, it is without rights or title and only through the abuse of confidence. It is therefore declared and demanded that the said notes, manuscripts and papers...such as were seized at the house of Monsieur Moinet, and those that were found to be absent and part of the work on horology in question, along with those written or annotated in the hand of Monsieur Breguet senior, and those written by Monsieur Moinet will be returned to the plaintif... furthermore the said Monsieur Moinet is required to pay all costs, damages and interest...." As a result of this judgement, Louis Moinet was forced to return the manuscripts to Antoine Louis Breguet. He had however managed to retain copies of the majority of the material which he published, despite the efforts of Monsieur Guibal, an old friend of the family and Monsieur Tredos, director of the workshops, to prevent him. On the 5th of May 1843, Monsieur Guibal wrote to Tredos: "Monsieur Moinet announces himself as a Collaborator with Breguet senior, and those who read his book, particularly those abroad, will naturally think that he was involved with all the marvellous inventions of Monsieur Breguet, who could therefore not have done without his talent and cooperation in building up his reputation. It seems only just and fair that the truth in this matter should be made clear. Furthermore, in his book, Monsieur Moinet disguises or ignores completely all that Monsieur Breguet has done, mentioning it only in passing, and after reading this book you would in no way be aware of the important inventions of Monsieur Breguet, nor the great steps that he made in the advancement of his art. Such conduct is unjust, jesuitic, ungrateful... Anybody who bears the name Breguet, should not stand for it in my opinion; I, who do not bear the name, find myself indisposed to stay silent, due to my respect and friendship for all the Breguet family." (Literal translation of excerpts from Monsieur Guibal's letter).

LOT 8

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Comte Journiac St. Méard "Perpétuelle" watch No. 5, begun on 4 April 1787, the construction interrupted during the Revolution but restarted in 1792; finished and sold on 24 Ventose an 2 (14 March 1794), for the sum of 3600 Francs. Gold self- winding watch with "à toc" quarterrepeating, constructed on the principals of the " garde-temps", with phases and age of the moon, and winding indicator.

Case: 20 ct., two body, by Mermillod, No. 74. engine-turned à grains d'orge .
Dial: Engine-turned silver, by Tavernier, signed: " Breguet", with Roman numerals on a plain reserve, subsidiary seconds with sector for the up-and-down scale calibrated for 60 hours, aperture for the phases of the moon, the age engraved on the edge. Blued-steel Breguet hands. Dial plate in gilt metal , signed: "Breguet, No.5".
Movement: Gilt brass, 19.5"', full plate caliber, relieved for the escapement, two going-barrels, self-winding with an oscillating ogival platinum weight, pivoted on the edge of the back plate and locked automatically by a rising pawl when fully wound, or at-will by a small lever in the edge of the dial plate, the banking springs attached to the interior of the case. Five-wheel train with an intermediate wheel to enable a 60 hour going period. Straight line lever escapement, the fork with vertical pins. Bimetallic four-arm compensation balance, the two segment rim with the timing weights threaded onto the ends in the manner of Arnold, and conventional adjusting screws, with parachutes on both pivots. Bluedsteel helical balance spring with terminal curves and regulator adjusted by a rack and micrometer through the edge of the dial plate. Dumb repeating with a single hammer, by pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 54 mm.

CHF 450,000 - 550000

Sold: CHF 512,250

History: This watch was subsequently delivered by Jourgniac St.Méard to a Count Fortier. According to the repair books it returned for overhaul in 1844 and 1845 at the request of a Monsieur Beauman of 18 Boulevard des Italiens. The repair entry notes that the watch had not been returned since the day of sale in 1794
Provenance: Formerly in the Rothschild collection, this watch is illustrated and described in G.Daniels: The Art of Breguet, p. 130, fig.74 a,b and c, and colour plate X.
Note: Breguet, himself, never claimed to be the inventor of the perpetuelle ( the name he gave to his self-winding watches), the earliest being produced in Switzerland by Abraham Louis Perrelet in approximately 1770. These first examples were unsuccessful due to the inadequecy of the winding system, which virtually required the wearer to proceed at a run in order to keep the movement sufficiently wound. Breguet's design was revolutionary by comparison, and incorporated several new " inventions" that were far ahead of their time: two barrels to enable lighter mainsprings to be used, a carefully balanced "weight" reacting to the slightest movement, and an additional train wheel to provide a going-period of up to 60 hours. The result was a watch that could be used by somebody leading a relatively inactive life, needing only a short time to recharge itself sufficiently to continue working, and could be left unattended for more than two days. The majority of his perpetuelle watches, even from the first series, were constructed on the principals of the garde-temps, with the main pivots jewelled, a detached escapement, and the balance with temperature compensation and elastic suspension (shock protection) on both pivots. Furthermore, they were fitted with a quarter, or even minute repeating mechanism, a state of winding indicator, and in some cases a phase of the moon dial. Most of these innovations were unknown in France at the time, and until the invention of the wristwatch were considered as the ultimate refinements able to be incorporated in an automatic watch. It is therefore little wonder that the introduction of such a watch brought much fame to its creator, with the majority being purchased by the most notable people of the day. Upon his return from Switzerland in 1795, Breguet introduced his overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, which allowed him to produce at a reasonable cost, watches of supreme slimness and elegance and in larger numbers; a considerable help to the re-establishment of his business. By contrast, the perpetuelle was more expensive to make, taking up to two years to complete, and after finishing the initial series, he made no more until approximately 1815. (Refer to the glossary for further details).

JOURGNIAC ST. MÉARD (1745-1827)
Francois Jourgniac St. Méard, originally from Bordeaux, but a Parisian by choice, appears to have spent his entire life getting into, and then out of difficulty. Perhaps his greatest achievement was to escape the guillotine during the September Massacres of the French Revolution. He entered the army at the age of twenty, enlisting in the King's Regiment of Infantry, and eventually achieving the rank of captain; like most officers at Ole time, he was awarded the Croix de Sainte-Louis. At the beginning of the Revolution, and after a series of disagreements with the soldiers of his company, he quit the service in 1790. He then came to Paris and worked as a journalist for the Journal de la cour et de la ville, the most viscous and cynical of the pamphlets, supposedly impartial, that were secretly supported by the Court of Louis XVI, in an attempt to discredit the opposition. Jourgniac was in fact a simple adventurer, an eternal child, hoping to make his fortune as a supporter of the counterrevolution. After 10th August, he was arrested on the orders of the Community watch committee, and thrown into prison at the Abbaye. When the massacres of September began he was able to strike up a friendship with one of the prison guards, a federalist from the Midi, with whom he shared only one thing in common - an ability to speak the local dialect. Nevertheless, he received some good advice, for when brought before the tribunal of Maillard, he defended himself with such style, overwhelming the judges with a stream of flattery and righteousness that he was acquitted. He most certainly deserved to be, if only on the grounds of his courage. His defence, which he conducted himself, was a masterpiece of tact and coolness, for he realised that to claim an imaginary revolutionary zeal would be disastrous. Jourgniac painted a picture of himself as a gentleman, perhaps slightly aristocratic, but a patriot at heart and harmless. Under questioning he admitted that he had quite frankly been a loyalist up to the 10th August - a master stroke, as the 10th August was the date on which the vast majority of the aristocracy had fled. Evidently his performance in court was first class, for having been found innocent, he was surrounded by well-wishers and escorted to his home. Some time later, Jourgniac published a pamphlet entitled: Mon Agonie de 38 heures (Paris 1792), which was remarkably well received, being re-printed in numerous editions. It is a source of information on the massacres at the Abbaye, but of limited value, as he was above all interested in himself, and the events described are seen only from his point of view. After its publication he totally gave up his career as a satirical writer, hoping only that he would be quietly forgotten. Come the Restoration of Louis XVIII, Jourgniac re-started his quest for fame and fortune, besieging the various Ministries with claims and appeals. He demanded a commission as a colonel, and a pension for a start, but since nobody had really heard anything about him, his claims were thrown out. In a tantrum of rage, he began to publish pamphlets attacking the various government departments, stating that his "38 hours" was worth more than twenty campaigns. Eventually supported by Chateaubriand, the famous author, Jourgniac moved heaven and earth in support of his own case, but the final result was the same. He died in 1827, whilst still attempting to get satisfaction of his claims.

LOT 9

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur de Castellane "Perpétuelle" watch No.26, sold on 27 February 1792, for the sum of 3300 Francs. Gold self-winding watch, with "à toc" quarterrepeating and winding indicator, constructed on the principals of the "garde-temps".

Case: 20 ct., polished, two body, by Mermillod, typical of the first series of perpétuelle watches.
Dial: White enamel, by Droz, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, five-minute divisions marked by fleur de lys, the minutes by small stars, subsidiary seconds and a sector for the up-anddown scale calibrated to 60 hours. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 19.5"', signed on the edge of the dial plate: "Inventé par Breguet à Paris, No. 26", full plate caliber, the back relieved for the escapement, two barrels wound automatically by an oscillating platinum weight of ogival form and pivoted on the edge of the back plate. The weight locked by a rising pawl when fully wound, the arc limiting spring fitted to the edge of the case. Fivewheel train, unjewelled, with an intermediate wheel to provide a 60 hour going period. Experimental lateral lever escapement, without draw, with gold lever, steel pallets with enclosed pallet jewels, and double roller with integral arc limiting slots, additional banking pins mounted on the watch plate. Arnold type two-arm bimetallic compensation balance with the adjusting weights threaded onto the ends of the rim. Blued-steel flat balance spring with micrometer regulator adjustable through the edge of the dial plate. The seconds hand can be unclutched at-will for exact time setting by means of a push-pin through the edge of the dial plate. Dumb repeating on the case with a single hammer by depressing the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 53 mm.

CHF 400,000 - 500000

Sold: CHF 336,250

Note: Breguet completed approximately 15 of the first series of perpétuelle watches before he left for Switzerland in 1793, and most incorporated his improved version of the lever escapement with jewelled pallets but without draw. This particular watch a spears to have an experimental escapement unlike any other. For further information refer to the previous lot.
LOUIS ANDRÉ BONIFACE Comte de Castellane (1758-1837) Louis André Boniface, Comte de Castellane - Novejean, was born on 4th August 1758. Politician and French General, his family was amongst the largest and most important of the nobility in Provence and included the Marquis d'Entrecasteaux, the Comte d'Achémar and the Comte de Grignan. A deputy from the nobility at the Assemblée Constituante in 1789, he joined the Tiers Etat in voting for religious freedom, fought for the Declaration of Human Rights, and supported the call for the abolition of the State Prisons. Thrown into prison during the Terror, he disappeared from the political scene for several years. Reinstated under Napoleon, he was appointed Governor of the Lower Pyrénées in 1802, and later in August 1815 named Pair de France. The Count died in 1837.

LOT 10

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Au Général Bonaparte Clock No. 178, sold on 5 Floréal an 6 (24 April 1798), for the sum of 1500 Francs. Small gilt bronze travelling clock with quarterrepeating and almanac calendar.

Case: Multi-piece, glazed sides with back and front doors, flanked by Doric pilasters, the frame engraved with foliage and flower motifs on a hatched ground, simple bow pattern handle, four turned finials and standing on chased bun feet.
Dial: Silver, with Roman numerals and a large concentric aperture for the engraved silver moon phase disc, the age engraved on the border. Blued-steel Breguet hands. Gilt-metal dial mask, engraved with scrollwork and signed : "Breguet, No. 178", with apertures for days of the week, date and months of the year, a small engraved sector at the top right for slow/fast regulation.
Movement: 8-day with rectangular brass plates, straight line lever escapement with large threearm plain brass balance with steel timing screws. Blued-steel Breguet balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Pump-wound quarter-repeating on two bells with the plunger on the top of the case.
In good condition. Dim. 110 x78 x 58 mm.

CHF 400,000 - 500000

Sold: CHF 798,250

Note: The records confirm that this clock, No. 178, completed in 1796, was the first carriage clock ever made by Breguet. A series of three were planned, but the two others were not finished at the time, being recorded as apparently lost. Curiously, an entry made at a much later date (September 1890) records that clock No. 179 was in fact sold in approximately 1804 to the Duc de Marchessa (François de Bourbon, King of Naples), for 3500 or 4000 Francs. It was obviously completed after 1800, with the addition of an alarm train, a moon in blued-steel and a later form of escapement with compensation balance and parachute (see George Daniels: The Art of Breguet, p. 164, fig. 155 a - d) Clock No. 178, bought by Général Bonaparte has survived in completely original condition, and is as such a unique document in the history of the pendule de voyage. It appears to be the very first made in the form (rectangular, glazed all round with visible movement and a folding handle) that was to be adopted by the Courvoisiers, Cugnier and Leschot in Switzerland, Paul Gamier, Oudin and LeRoy in France, and eventually to become the standard pattern for the modern carriage clock. One of many legends surrounding the life of Napoleon relates how he required his senior officers to make use of portable clocks to assure their timely arrival at the staff meetings. In view of the fact that Bonaparte purchased this clock, the earliest recorded, only 25 days before his departure for the Egyptian campaign on 19 May 1798, the legend may well contain more than a grain of truth.
GÉNÉRAL NAPOLÉON BONAPARTE (1769 - 1821) Napoleon Bonaparte, Military General, First Consul and Emperor of France, and the man who most influenced the history of Europe during his age. Born on 15 August 1769, in Ajaccio, Corsica, the son of Charles-Marie Bonaparte and Marie-Laetitia Ramolino, he entered the Royal Military school at Brienne at the age of ten, graduating to the artillery school in Paris, from where he passed out in 1785. As a lieutenant in 1786, he was stationed in Corsica, fighting at first for, and then against Paoli, the leader of the faction demanding self-government. In 1789, whilst garrisoned at Auxonne, he quelled a riot, but he first came to notice on the 10th of August 1792, when he took part in the storming of the Tuileries palace. At the siège of Toulon, held by the English, he was made commander of the artillery, and conceived a plan to recapture the town; it finally fell on the 17th of December 1793. Bonaparte was promoted to Brigadier General and made Artillery Commander of the army in Italy. However, as a close friend of Robespierre's brother Augustin, he was at first arrested after the 9 Thermidor (27 July 1794), but subsequently released. Returning from Italy in March 1795 he refused to accept a command in Vendée and was reduced to the ranks. The first coalition against France had been organised in 1792, but the Treaty of Basle in 1795, established a separate peace with Prussia and Spain; England, Austria and Piemont, continuing the war. On 2 March 1796, Bonaparte was named as general in charge of the French forces in Italy, and proclaimed to his men: "Soldiers you are badly clothed, badly fed.... I will lead you to the most fertile plains in the world...There you will find honour, glory and riches." Between the 9th of April and the 10th of May 1796 Napoleon split the Austrians from the Piemontais by his victories at Monternotte and Millesimo. He defeated General Colli at Mondori, followed by the Austrians at Lodi, and entered Milan in triumph, after which his soldiers nicknamed him Le Petit Caporal. On the 3rd and the 5th of August he won the battles of Lonato and Castiglione against the Austrian general Wurmser, and in November of the same year, narrowly escaped death at the bridge of Arcole, his life being saved by Lannes (later made Marshal) who was wounded, and Muiron, who was killed. January 1797 saw the victory at Rivoli, the capitulation of Wurmser at the siege of Mantoue, and the forces of the Archduke Charles forced to retreat. Bonaparte, now the protector of two Italian Republics, was virtually a sovereign ruler. In October, the Austrians sued for peace at Leoben, signing the Treaty of Campo-Formio which ceeded Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine to France. Bonaparte returned to France in triumph in December 1797. Having decided to attack England through Egypt with the intention of cutting off the trade route to the Indias, Napoleon embarked on his Egyptian campaign on 19th May 1798, setting sail on board the Orient. He captured Malta en route and disembarked his army at Alexandria. On 21 th July, at the battle of the Pyramids, Bonaparte announced to his troops:" Soldiers, from the summit of the pyramids, forty centuries of history looks down on you." He went on to defeat the Mameluks, but the French fleet was destroyed by Nelson at Aboukir on 1st August. In February 1799, already master of Egypt, Bonaparte pursued the Turkish army into Syria and was again victorious at Mount Thabor, but the onset of plague amongst his troops forced him to lift the siege of Saint-Jean-d'Acre. His final victory was against mercenary troops at Aboukir on the 25th July, after which he decided to leave General Kleber in command and return to France. Disembarking at Fréjus on the 9th October 1799, Bonaparte was feted throughout his journey to Paris. The remainder of Napoleon Bonaparte's life as a Consul and Emperor is as well documented as his early career as a soldier, but falls after the period when he bought this clock and was entered by Breguet in their sales book as Général Bonaparte.

LOT 11

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Von Humboldt "Garde-temps" No. 147, sold in 1805 ,for the sum of 960 Francs. Silver "garde-temps" watch.

Case: Three body, polished, of collier form, by Tavernier, No. 470. Gilt brass cuvette signed: " Breguet, No. 147".
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, regulator type, signed: "Breguet", and "No. 15", small eccentric hour ring with Breguet numerals, subsidiary seconds below and concentric outer minute ring. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 24"', the barrel retained by a bridge signed: "Breguet, No. 147", with inverted fusee and maintaining power, Arnold type spring detent escapement with bimetallic compensaiton balance, gold adjusting screws with parachute on both pivots. Free sprung, the helical balance spring with terminal curves.
In very good condition. Diam. 61 mm.

CHF 250,000 - 300000

Sold: CHF 281,250

History: According to the repair books, the watch was returned by Baron von Humboldt for overhaul on 11 April 1827. Note: The enamel dial of this watch is numbered 15 in the same way that watch No. 3248 (see lot 65) bears the No. 6; and they were in fact made for a series of garde-temps before Breguet left for Switzerland. As virtually all the watches were finished well after his return, the movements bear much higher numbers. During Breguet's lifetime, the firm made very few watches destined for entirely functional use as pocket chronometers or deck watches, unlike the contemporary english and french makers, such as Arnold, Earnshaw, Berthoud and Motel, who made little else. The records indicate that von Humboldt bought at least three of which two are included here, the third being in the Beyer Museum in Zurich. Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet , p. 160, figs. 108 a - d.
Baron ALEXANDER von HUMBOLDT (1769-1859) Baron Friedrich, Heinrich, Alexander von Humboldt, Prussian natural scientist, was born in 1769 in Berlin and died in 1859. He was the brother of Wilhelm von Humboldt, the German diplomat and learned philologist and philosopher of language. He was a great traveller, explored America with Bonpland (Journey to the Equinoxial Regions of the New Continent between 1799 and 1804). His second home was France. He came to Paris in 1805 and was elected as an Associate Member of the Académie des Sciences. Among his friends were most of the city's eminent scholars : Achille Valenciennes, Arago, Guy-Lussac, Cuvier and Latreille. His sovereign however, asked him to return to Berlin in 1827, where he then took on the post of Private Counsellor and subsequently had to recognise the new King who had emerged from the July revolution. He undertook his second voyage to Asia on behalf of the Czar Nicolas I of Russia, the resulting book, Fragments of Geology and Asiatic Climatology, 1832, contributing towards the advances being made in climatology, oceanography and geology. He also wrote the famous Kosmos ou Description physique du Monde in which he summed up the entire human knowledge about Heaven and Earth. Alexander von Humboldt is considered one of the most important scientists of his time. Most of his experiments and expeditions were accomplished with clocks and timepieces which had been specially designed for him by Breguet.

LOT 12

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Maleszewski "Souscription" watch No. 258, delivered on 24 Thermidor an 7 (11 August 1799). Gold and silver "souscription" watch with single hand.

Case: 18 ct., three body, collier form, by Mermillod, No. 371, in silver, engine-turned à grains d'orge, with rims in gold, the reeded band with monogram "S" in blue champlevé enamel on a circular gold plaque, affixed to the middle of the back.
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, No. 28, signed: " Breguet", with Breguet numerals and secret signature under "12". Blued-steel souscription hand with tapered point.
Movement: Gilt brass, 25"' signed: "Breguet, No. 258", of experimental caliber, as used by Breguet for the first souscription watches, with central barrel, retained along with the wheels by a single plate. Overhanging ruby cylinder escapement with gilt brass escape wheel, threearm plain brass balance. Blued -steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator.
In good condition. Diam. 61 mm.

CHF 25,000 - 30000

Sold: CHF 34,500

Note: In approximately 1794, whilst exiled in Switzerland, Breguet conceived the idea for his souscription watches, but it was after his return to Paris that he began their construction. The caliber for the movement was developed in stages, the first being a single handed watch with the barrel in the centre (see G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 170, figs. 127 a-c, and 128 a-b) and the balance mounted beneath the dial, both examples known being fitted with a lever escapement. This watch, no. 258, also very rare, is an example of the intermediate stage, incorporating an over-hanging cylinder escapement, parachute shock protection, a bimetallic compensation curb, and the wheeltrain layed out in exactly the same way as the final version; the only difference being the use of a single small "back plate" instead of bridges.
PIERRE MALESZEWSKI (PAUL-JEAN) (1767 - 1828) Pierre Maleszewski, politician, economist, publisher and historian, was the natural son of Michel Poniatowski and Marie Maleszewski. In 1786, he was sent to Paris by his father, who was in fact the brother of Stanislas August Poniatowski, King of Poland. He became a member of the french masonic lodge dedicated to la Réunion des étrangers de l'Est de la France, which, alongside his connections with the press enabled him to further certain polish interests, whilst at the sanie time acting as an informant for his King. After a brief return to Poland in 1792, the King again sent him on a new political mission, and he arrived in Paris in January 1793. As a result of his correspondence being intercepted, Maleszewski was arrested, but subsequently released through the intervention of General Sulkowski, although he was forced to hide out in the capital due to the unrest created by the assassination of Marat in July 1793. Towards the end of the same year, he married Victoire-Françoise Venture de Paradis, the daughter of his friend Jean-Michel, Professor of oriental languages, which enabled him to reappear in public again. Following the death of his father, and the end of the French Revolution, he became a confirmed Republican. His literary output was extensive and varied; two books written in polish covered the English parliament and the interrelation between agriculture, business and craft. In 1795, he published: Recherches politiques sur l' état ancien et moderne de la Pologne, appliqués à sa dernière révolution under the pseudonym J.Ph. Garran. In 1798, General Bernadotte appointed him as his secretary at the French Embassy in Vienna, and a year later when the general became Minister of Defence, Maleszewski returned with him to Paris. Quitting the field of military administration in 1801, he launched himself into the world of business in the Ukraine, writing a paper entitled: Sur le connuerce avec la Mer Noire; his ideas apparently met with the approval of Napoleon, for by 1802 he was a major shareholder in various commercial enterprises in Odessa, and the following year established direct trade links with France. In 1803, following the settlement of his inheritance, he returned to Paris, but found himself in opposition to both the politics of Napoleon and his native Poland. Despite a cataract in his eye, discovered in 1823, Maleszewski continued his writing; his final work: Essai historique et politique sur la Pologne depuis son origine jusqu'en 1788 was published posthumously. He died in 1832 at the house of his second wife, Jeanne, daughter of his friend J.Ph. Garran, at Maisonneuve near Chatellerault.

LOT 13

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Duc de Praslin Watch No. 443, sold on 22 Ventose an 7, (12 March 1799) for the sum of 600 Francs. Silver "souscription" watch.

Case: Three body, collier form, by Mermillot, No. 164, engine-turned n grains d'orge, with the joints and bow in gold, a very small monogram engraved in the centre of the back.
Dial: White enamel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, secret signature beneath "12" ( some scratches). Blued-steel souscription hand.
Movement: Gilt brass, 25"', signed: "Breguet, No.443", souscription caliber with central barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the index regulator.
In good condition, with a green leather fitted case from Chaumet. Diam. 61 mm.

CHF 25,000 - 30000

Sold: CHF 34,500

History: The last entry in the repair books for this watch, dated 24 March] 842, indicate that it was still the property of the Comtes de Praslin. For a note on this watch see lot 21.
ANTOINE CÉSAR Duc de Praslin (1756-1808) Antoine César, the third Duc de Praslin, soldier and politician, was born in 1756 and died in 1808. After a career in the army, during which he served in several regiments, the Duke entered into politics. He was elected as the representative for Sénéchaussée in Anjou to the Etats Généraux which became, after the Revolution on July 14, 1789, the Assemblée Constituante. Himself a Freemason, the Duc de Praslin made no attempt to defend the unfortunate Louis XVI on the infamous days of 20th June and 10th August, 1792 when the angry crowds demanded his deposal. Arrested with his wife Charlotte de Thomond, he was quickly released at the end of the Terror on the 1 Thermidor an 2 (27 July 1794), thanks to the intervention of his children's tutor Joseph François Beaudelaire (the father of Charles Beaudelaire, the celebrated French poet). Elected to the Senate in 1799, the Duke did not forget the debt he owed to his former employee, and obtained for Beaudelaire an important post at the Questure du Sénat (civil service). A strong supporter of Napoleon, as First Consul, the Duke virtually abandoned his commitment to his Masonic Lodge in the latter years of his life.

LOT 14

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Duc D'Aussana Watch No. 115, sold on 29 Vendémiaire an 8 (21 October 1799), for the sum of 2800 Francs. Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating, constructed on the principals of the "gardetemps".

Case: 18 ct., three body polished, by Bapst, of typical garde-temps form, the back with a monogram "A.B.", surmounted by a ducal crown. Gilt metal cuvette signed: "Breguet, No. 115".
Dial: White enamel by Cavé, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, and early style "star" minute marks, subsidiary seconds, secret signature below "12" (small hairlines). Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', the dial plate signed: "Breguet, No. 115", full plate caliber with turned pillars, straight line lever escapement without draw of the first type, with jewelled pallets, slotted escape wheel teeth, three-arm bimetallic compensation balance of Arnold type, with the adjusting weights threaded onto the end of rim segments. Blued-steel helical balance spring with double terminal curves. Dumb repeating with a single hammer armed by depressing the pendant, with the speed adjustable by a small lever in the band.
In good condition. Diam. 55 mm.

CHF 70,000 - 90000

Note: The type of lever escapement used in this watch is drawn and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, pp. 306, 307 although the banking fork is slightly different being off-set to one side of the lever tail. An all-or-nothing system is incorporated in the repeating train allowing the hammer to engage only when the pendant is fully depressed.

LOT 15

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Pargaise Watch No. 173, begun in Brumaire an 4 (October 1795) finished in September 1796, sold circa 1800, for the sum of 1736 Francs. Silver cased clockwatch with quarter-repeating and jump hour hand.

Case: Three body, polished, by Amy Gros, in the style of the first ,garde-temps. Gilt metal cuvette signed: "Breguet".
Dial: White enamel signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals ( small hair lines), secret signature below "12". Gilt metal dial plate signed: "Breguet No. 173". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt metal, 21-, full plate, with two trains, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Quarter-striking train with fixed barrel striking on two rectangular section short gongs mounted on the back plate. Quarterrepeating by releasing the strike train.
In good condition. Diam. 58 mm.

CHF 40,000 - 45000

History: According to the repair books this watch was returned for overhaul on 22 June 1830 and 20 October 1835 at the request of a Général Sebastiani of 55, Rue Faubourg St. Honoré, Paris. Note: This watch is certainly one of the earliest known by Breguet with a jump hour hand; furthermore it would appear to be one of the first to strike on gongs. Breguet is reputed to have been the inventor of the spring gong, although he never claimed it himself but certainly used them. The gong represented a considerable advance over a bell housed in the back of the case, as it took up much less space, could be made in different shapes and therefore fitted into far thinner watches. Different lengths giving a different tone also allowed for a clear distinction to be drawn between the striking of the hours and the quarters. The first watches of this type had the gongs fitted on the inside of the case; fitted to the back plate they allowed the movement to have a smaller overall diameter. In fact this watch appears to be one of only two examples with the gongs mounted on the back plate.

LOT 16

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur l'Ambassadeur Turc. Watch No 248, sold in l'an 6 (1797 - 98), for the sum of 1200 Francs. Silver pair-cased coach watch with pull quarterrepeating and alarm. Decorated wood hanging stand.

Case: Three body, by Tavernier, No. 1313, the back pierced with roundels. The pair-case shellcovered (old cracks) with pin- work decoration.
Dial: White enamel, by Coteau, signed: "Breguet", with Turkish numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands and concentric alarm pointer. Gilt metal dial plate, signed: "Breguet à Paris, No. 248".
Movement: Gilt brass, full plate caliber with tapered pillars, the back plate signed: "Breguet, No. 248", with verge escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, French cock pierced and engraved with scroll work, with polished steel end piece. Fixed barrel for the alarm and pull-wind repeating with two hammers on a large bell.
In good condition. Diam. 110 mm.

CHF 35,000 - 45000

Sold: CHF 57,500

Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 128, figs. 124 a - c. lot 17 /46 21837/4
M O R A L I A L I EFFENDI ( ? - 1809) Born in Morée, he began his career in Istanbul in the Chancellery of the Sublime Porte. In response to the arrival of Marshal Sebastiani as French Ambassador, the Sultan of Turkey sent Ali Effendi to Paris in a similar capacity in 1796. After a stay of three years, he returned to Turkey and was put in charge of the Naval Shipyards, eventually becoming minister for the Navy, and making a substantial contribution towards the reform of the armed forces. Ali Effendi held several positions of importance during the reigns of both Selim IV and Mustafa IV, particularly during the negotiations of the Treaty with Napoleon. However, his arrogant nature eventually led to his being ordered away from Istanbul, and he was assassinated in 1809.

LOT 17

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur Julliot Watch No. 647, sold on 11 Ventose an 9 (2 March 1801), for the sum of 2400 Francs. Gold watch with "grande" and "petite" sonnerie striking and quarter-repeating.

Case: 18 ct.,polished, three body with concealed hinges, by Amy Gros, No. 647. Gilt metal cuvette, signed: "Breguet, No. 647".
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, and secret signature below "12". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass 22" full plate caliber, two train with turned pillars, signed on the dial plate: " Breguet No. 647", overhanging ruby cylinder escapement and three-arm plain brass balance. Blued-steel balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Grande/ petite striking on two blued-steel gongs with sonnerie / silence and grnnde/ petite select levers in the edge of the dial plate. Seperate quarter-repeating train, by depressing the pendant, with locking lever on the front bezel.
In very good condition. Red leather fitted case by Desoutter. Diam. 58 mm.

CHF 60,000 - 80000

Sold: CHF 69,000

Provenance: Formerly in the Sir David Salomons Collection, No. 86. Sold at Christie's, London, as lot 19, catalogue part II, on 1 December 1964. Exhibition: This watch was exhibited in Paris at the Palais Galliera, in October 1923, on the centenary of the death of Abraham Louis Breguet, Cat. No. 127.
Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, pp. 69, 70 and 177., figs. 140 a-c.
Note: Breguet used this caliber of movement with a separate pump-wound repeating train, for many of his watches destined for the Near Eastern market.

LOT 18

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

A Monsieur le Général Marcoff Watch No. 869, sold on 24 Brumaire an 12 ( 16 November 1803), for the sum of 1800 Francs, the account paid on 26 Nivose an 12 (17 January 1804). Gold watch with "à toc" quarter-repeating.

Case: 18 ct., three body, by Tavernier, No. 869, of the type used for the perpétuelles and first gardetemps, with fluted band, the back engine-turned à grains d'orge, and engraved in the centre with the monogram "C.J.M.". Gilt brass cuvette signed: " Breguet, No. 869".
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals and subsidiary seconds, secret signature below "12" ( hair lines and a small restoration on the edge concealed by the bezel). Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 22"', signed: "Breguet, No.869", full plate with turned pillars, fusee and chain, double wheel duplex escapement, the wheels in steel. Three-arm plain brass balance, with parachute on the top pivot. Blued-steel flat spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating with two hammers on the edge of the case by depressing the pendant.
In good condition. Diam. 55 mm.

CHF 60,000 - 80000

Literature: Illustrated and described in G. Daniels, The Art of Breguet, p. 185, fig. 149 a - c. Note: Although invented in France, the duplex escapement was to a great extent used by english watch makers. Very few watches are known by Breguet with such an escapement, and of these the majority are fitted with the double-wheel variant.

LOT 19

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Case: 18 ct., four body, collier form, by Amy Gros,No. 3893, engine-turned à grains d'orge. Gold cuvette signed: "Breguet No. 514".
Dial: White enamel, by Borel, signed: "Breguet", with Breguet numerals, concentric calendar ring and secret signature below "12". Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt metal, 21-, Lepine caliber with free standing barrel, overhanging ruby cylinder escapement, three-arm plain brass balance, with unusual style parachute on the top pivot. Bluedsteel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating on two gongs with two hammers, with pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In good condition. Diam. 54 mm.

CHF 35,000 - 40000

Sold: CHF 36,800

History: Repurchased from a Monsieur Joubert on 31 December 1842, it was renumbered as 514 and sold to Monsieur Tredos.
Note: At the time he purchased this watch, Monsieur Tredos was director of the Breguet workshops under Louis Clément Breguet; his father, Louis, having retired to his country residence at Buisson near Verrière, in Seine et Oise. Encouraged by Monsieur Guibal, an old friend of A.L. Breguet, Monsieur Tredos had in vain tried to convince Louis Breguet to revise the court case, begun as far back as 1823, against Louis Moinet, for breach of trust.

LOT 20

THE ART OF BREGUET Geneva, Hotel Des Bergues, Apr 14, 1991

Buyer unknown Watch No. 1388, Etablissement Mixte de Breguet, circa 1815. Gold watch with quarter-repeating.

Case: 18 ct., four body, Empire form, with bombé reeded band, the back engine-turned à grains d' orge. Gilt metal cuvette signed: "Etablissement Mixte de Breguet, No. 1388".
Dial: White enamel, with Breguet numerals. Blued-steel Breguet hands.
Movement: Gilt brass, 21-, bar caliber, with free standing barrel, cylinder escapement with threearm plain brass balance with parachute on the top pivot. Blue-steel flat balance spring with bimetallic compensation curb on the regulator. Repeating on two gongs with two hammers, the pull-twist piston in the pendant.
In very good condition. Diam. 55 mm.

CHF 8,000 - 12000

Sold: CHF 20,700

Note: Shortly before his death in 1823, Breguet published a short pamphlet designed to explain his current production to the general public, under the title: Horlogerie pour I'Usage Civil, Chronomètres Portatifs, Horloges Marines et A s tr onomiques et Autres Instruments d'Observation, de Breguet et Fils, Horlogers de la Marine Royale de France. In this short work under article 13, he explained the term: Etablissement Mixte de Breguet, which appears on certain of the firm's watches: "The mixtes watches, either simple or repeating, are made outside our workshops, but to our design and under our supervision. The escapement and regulator (balance, balance spring, etc.) are finished by us". Unfortunately, the sales register recording these watches was lost or destroyed many years ago, and it is therefore not possible to give an accurate date of sale, price or the name of the buyer.